In-text citations are included throughout the course of your writing, to acknowledge the sources of information you have used to build and support your ideas. An in-text citation provides information about the author, the year the information was published, and sometimes location information such as a page number.
An in-text citation can be presented in different ways:
Additional information and examples of how to reference in-text when quoting and paraphrasing in the Chicago 17thB Author-Date style are presented below.
Paraphrasing is when you present the ideas of others in your own words.
Palladino and Wade (2010) argue that mental well-being is linked with flexible thinking.
It could be argued that mental flexibility is a key factor in well-being (Palladino and Wade 2010).
Quoting is when you copy the exact words (including spelling and punctuation) from another source into your work.
Quoting example - with page numbers
According to Palladino and Wade (2010, 147), “a flexible mind is a healthy mind.”
In fact, “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (Palladino and Wade 2010, 147).
Quoting example - with paragraph numbers
Lee (2015, para. 1) states that “double quotation marks are used to enclose quoted material.”
“In the APA and Chicago referencing styles, double quotation marks are used to enclose quoted material” (Lee 2015, para. 1).
Use a freestanding block of text which:
Your in-text citation will appear in brackets after the final punctuation mark and will include the author, year of publication, and page/paragraph number (note: there is no punctuation mark after the in-text citation)
Block quotation example
In-text citations are important in academic writing, drawing the parallel between the author’s work and the sources which support it:
The function of any citation-signaller is to alert the reader to some kind of association between the citing text and the cited text. Citation-signallers may additionally, by using page references or chapter numbers, single out a particular part of the text as especially relevant. (Langham 2005, 361)
When including multiple sources to support a particular point in your writing or demonstrating a consensus:
Multiple sources example
There is an established consensus that the current trend towards a warming climate is directly linked to human activity (Hegerl 1996; Levitus et al. 2017; NASA, n.d; Robinson, Hall, and Mote 2014; Santer et al. 2003).
Bull (2015) states…
Bull, Melissa. 2008. Governing the Heroin Trade: From Treaties to Treatment. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/curtin/detail.action?docID=438571.
Bull, Melissa. 2015. Punishment and Sentencing: Risk, Rehabilitation and Restitution. South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/curtin/detail.action?docID=1985996.
(Clarke and Fawcett 2014b).
Clarke and Fawcett (2014a) suggest that…
Clarke, Pamela, and Jacqueline Fawcett. 2014a. “Life as a Mentor.” Nursing Science Quarterly 27 (3): 213-215. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318414534492.
Clarke, Pamela, and Jaqueline Fawcett. 2014b. “Life as a Nurse Researcher.” Nursing Science Quarterly 27 (1): 37-41. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318413509708.
If referring to two or more publications where the primary (first) authors have the same surname, include the first author’s initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs.
(B. Johnson 2015). OR According to B. Johnson (2015)…
(M. Johnson, Sanchez, and Zheng 2016). OR M. Johnson, Sanchez, and Zheng (2016) state…
Johnson, B. M. 2015. “Buoyancy Instability of Homologous Implosions.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics 774 (6): R4-1-R4-12. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2015.309.
Johnson, Maree, Paula Sanchez, and Catherine Zheng. 2016. “The Impact of an Integrated Nursing Handover System on Nurses’s Satisfaction and Work Practices.” Journal of Clinical Nursing 25 (1-2): 257-268. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13080.
Academic content such as books and journal articles will often contain a lot of citations. When do you need to give credit to the original author (primary source)? Cite the original author when:
When citing a secondary source:
…“event in nature or in society” (Blaikie et al. 1994, as quoted by Maldonado et al. 2013, 602).
Lazrus (2012, as quoted by Maldonado et al. 2013, 610) outlines the exemptions for certain populations.
Maldonado, Julie, Christine Shearer, Robin Bronen, Kristina Peterson, and Heather Lazrus. 2013. “The Impact of Climate Change on Tribal Communities in the US: Displacement, Relocation, and Human Rights.” Climatic Change 120 (3): 601-614. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0746-z.
Packer, Joanne, Gerry Turpin, Emilie Ens, Beatrice Venkataya, Mbabaram Community, Yirralka Rangers, and Jennifer Hunter. 2019. “Building Partnerships for Linking Biomedical Science With Traditional Knowledge of Customary Medicines: A Case Study With Two Australian Indigenous Communities.” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 15:69-81. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0348-6.