Indigenous Knowledges are those which are held and continuously developed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. IP Australia (2021) defines two distinct areas:
The way in which Indigenous Knowledges is referenced depends on whether, and how the information has been recorded.
Indigenous authored sources
If you have read a book or journal article, watched a YouTube video or listened to a podcast created by an Indigenous person (the information was recorded in a format that can be retrieved) follow the standard guidelines provided in this guide to create your in-text citation and reference list entry, according to the source type (e.g. journal article, book, video etc.).
Non-Indigenous authored sources
Indigenous Knowledge may be communicated by non-Indigenous authors. Wherever possible, the author, the Indigenous person, and the appropriate community or language group should be referenced within your narrative or in your in-text citations (if an individual is not mentioned, include the community or language group alone). If the source does not provide this information, use the broader term ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ within the citation before the source details.
In-text example - Non-Indigenous authored - Known individual or language group
The Government policy of removing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their parents continues to have a considerable impact, despite formally ending in 1969. “Stories such as this need to be told as we, as Aboriginal people, suffer a lot.” (Ryder, Ballardong Noongar, as quoted by Clark 2021, para. 12).
In-text example - Non-Indigenous authored - Unknown individual or language group
The Yugul Mangi Rangers suggest that burning is guided by “the old people” (Indigenous ancestors) and typically occurs directly after the rain. Knowledge is communicated orally and learned through experience (Indigenous Knowledge, as quoted by McKerney et al. 2020, 1000).
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have an oral tradition, meaning their knowledges, beliefs and customs are passed down verbally or through other cultural expressions. If the information has been communicated with you directly (e.g. you have spoken to an Indigenous person directly) and you have permission to use it in your work, follow the guidelines for referencing a Personal Communication, but also include the Indigenous community or language group, if known.
For example, the in-text citation will be displayed as:
(I. Cumming, Whadjuk Noongar, personal communication, July 1, 2021).
Reference list examples
Kain, Erik. 2016. “Hold the Door,” Review of Game of Thrones, season 6/episode 5, by Jack Bender. Forbes, May 22, 2016. https://www.forbes.com/sites/erikkain/2016/05/22/game-of-thrones-season-6-episode-5-review-hold-the-door/#23b2a8a01b77.
Lane, Anthony. 2019. “Toy Story 4 Plays it Again,” Review of Toy Story 4, by Josh Cooley. The New Yorker, July 1, 2019. https://newyorker.com/magazine/2019/07/01/toy-story-4-plays-it-again.
Robbins, Mark. 2011. Review of The American Bird Conservancy Guide to Bird Conservation, by Daniel J. Lebbin, Michael J. Parr and George H. Fenwick. The Quarterly Review of Biology 86 (4): 343-344. https://doi.org/10.1086/662504.
According to Robbins (2011) …
(B. Burns, text message to author, May 12, 2019).
…“there was no basis for the copyright claim” (J. Smith, personal communication, February 9, 2016).
In J. Smith’s personal communication with her lecturer on February 9, 2016, she reasoned that “there was no basis for the copyright claim.”
(Mary Smith, unpublished interview, May 7, 2017).
In K. Watson’s interview with a health-care worker on July 31, 2017 it was revealed that the issue was still in progress.
Reference list example
Irino, Tomohisa, and Ryuji Tada. 2009. Chemical and Mineral Compositions of Sediments from ODP Site 127-797. Dataset. Geological Institute, University of Tokyo. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726855.
(Irino and Tada 2009).
According to Irino and Tada (2009) …
Tools like Open AI’s ChatGPT, Google’s Bard, and Writesonic’s ChatSonic produce text in response to prompts. Other tools produce music, art, and code. They are examples of nonrecoverable sources, meaning the content they produce is not accessible to anyone other than the person who generated it. People cannot be directed to a particular location to find it. Additionally, they are not considered scholarly sources as their responses are based on the datasets they are trained on, and the true origin of the information is unknown.
Content produced by generative AI may be inaccurate, unreliable and unethical, and may contain errors, biases, or other issues. Before you begin your assignment, check your unit outline and assignment guidelines, or ask your lecturer as using the tools may be prohibited. If you have been provided with specific guidelines on how to reference generative AI outputs within your unit, you should follow them.
If you are allowed to use generative AI in your assignment, you must include:
A declaration must be included in your assignment after your reference list. It should detail which tools you have used to generate content in the process of completing your assignment and how they have been employed. The declaration must include the prompts you have used to generate information.
The format should be as follows:
I acknowledge the use of ChatGPT (https://chat.openai.com/chat) in the preparation and/or writing of my assignment. I have used ChatGPT to assist with:
The following prompts were input into ChatGPT:
In accordance with the Chicago 17 Author-Date style, when you have quoted or paraphrased text generated by an AI, you must include an in-text citation, acknowledging the tool you have used. You are not required to include a reference list entry as this is considered a type of personal communication.
Provide the name of the tool you have used, and the date the information was generated using the format below.
(ChatGPT, May 12, 2023).
According to ChatGPT (May 12, 2023)…
Use quotation marks to distinguish between your own words and the words generated by the tool:
Dogs and cats represent the most common pets in Australia; however, there is some debate as to which is better. “Some people may prefer dogs because they are considered to be more loyal and protective, while others may prefer cats because they are independent and low maintenance” (ChatGPT, May 12, 2023).
Note Declaration: Ensure the prompt used is included in the declaration.
If the GenAI text discusses theories or specific ideas, you should include additional sources as evidence that these are supported by scholarly research. In the in-text, include the sources in the same set of brackets, ordered alphabetically, chronologically, or by importance, whichever best suits your work. Separate the citations with semi-colons:
The development of creative skills can offer a range of benefits, including enhancing problem-solving by encouraging divergent, out-of-the-box thinking (ChatGPT, February 20, 2023; Sweller 2009).
Provide a reference list entry for each additional source used, following the appropriate format (journal article, webpage, etc.).
Ensure the prompt used for the GenAI is included in the declaration.