Chicago 17th Author-Date

(formerly Chicago 17th B)

Indigenous Knowledges

Indigenous Knowledges are those which are held and continuously developed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. IP Australia (2021) defines two distinct areas:

  • Traditional Cultural Expressions - including languages, stories, songlines, music, performances, visual arts, crafts, architecture, designs and symbols
  • Traditional Knowledge - including know-how, practices, skills and innovations, often related but not limited to agricultural, scientific, technical, ecological, medicinal and biodiversity-related knowledge.

The way in which Indigenous Knowledges is referenced depends on whether, and how the information has been recorded.

Published sources

Indigenous authored sources

If you have read a book or journal article, watched a YouTube video or listened to a podcast created by an Indigenous person (the information was recorded in a format that can be retrieved) follow the standard guidelines provided in this guide to create your in-text citation and reference list entry, according to the source type (e.g. journal article, book, video etc.).

Non-Indigenous authored sources

Indigenous Knowledge may be communicated by non-Indigenous authors. Wherever possible, the author, the Indigenous person, and the appropriate community or language group should be referenced within your narrative or in your in-text citations (if an individual is not mentioned, include the community or language group alone). If the source does not provide this information, use the broader term ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ within the citation before the source details.

In-text example - Non-Indigenous authored - Known individual or language group

The Government policy of removing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their parents continues to have a considerable impact, despite formally ending in 1969. “Stories such as this need to be told as we, as Aboriginal people, suffer a lot.” (Ryder, Ballardong Noongar, as quoted by Clark 2021, para. 12).

In-text example - Non-Indigenous authored - Unknown individual or language group

The Yugul Mangi Rangers suggest that burning is guided by “the old people” (Indigenous ancestors) and typically occurs directly after the rain. Knowledge is communicated orally and learned through experience (Indigenous Knowledge, as quoted by McKerney et al. 2020, 1000).

Extra tips

  • It may be appropriate to refer to an Indigenous Elder as Aunty or Uncle in your narrative if they are referred to in the source or if you have permission to do so. For example: Uncle Charles, Bundjalung, highlights the importance of stillness and listening to the lessons from Country (Moran and Moran 2004, 56).
  • In-text references for non-Indigenous authors should follow the format of Authors citing other authors.

Non-published sources

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have an oral tradition, meaning their knowledges, beliefs and customs are passed down verbally or through other cultural expressions. If the information has been communicated with you directly (e.g. you have spoken to an Indigenous person directly) and you have permission to use it in your work, follow the guidelines for referencing a Personal Communication, but also include the Indigenous community or language group, if known.

For example, the in-text citation will be displayed as:

(I. Cumming, Whadjuk Noongar, personal communication, July 1, 2021).


Reference components

Reviewer Surname, First Name(s). Year. “Title of Review,” Review of Medium Title in Italics, by Medium Author’s First Name(s) Surname. Source Details as applicable.

Reference list examples

Kain, Erik. 2016. “Hold the Door,” Review of Game of Thrones, season 6/episode 5, by Jack Bender. Forbes, May 22, 2016.

Lane, Anthony. 2019. “Toy Story 4 Plays it Again,” Review of Toy Story 4, by Josh Cooley. The New Yorker, July 1, 2019.

Robbins, Mark. 2011. Review of The American Bird Conservancy Guide to Bird Conservation, by Daniel J. Lebbin, Michael J. Parr, and George H. Fenwick. The Quarterly Review of Biology 86 (4): 343-344.

(Robbins 2011).


According to Robbins (2011) …

  • The structure of your reference will depend on where you find the review. Provide the details of the source as applicable for that reference type (as shown in the examples above)
  • Include the title of the review only if it is available
  • For reviews of plays, concerts and movies, include the name of a director in addition to the name of the author, producer or performer as applicable
  • Reviews included in the reference list are alphabetized by the name of the reviewer. If reviewer details are not available, it is alphabetized by the title

Personal communication

Personal communications are not included in the reference list.

  • Cite in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible.
  • Personal communications are works which cannot be recovered by the reader. They include emails, text messages, online chats, letters, memos, personal (unpublished) interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches etc.
  • Personal communications may not be acceptable to include in your assignment – please check with your lecturer/tutor before doing so.
  • Mention the type of communication within your in-text citation (examples: email, text message etc.)

(B. Burns, text message to author, May 12, 2019).


…“there was no basis for the copyright claim” (J. Smith, personal communication, February 9, 2016).


In J. Smith’s personal communication with her lecturer on February 9, 2016, she reasoned that “there was no basis for the copyright claim.”

Unpublished interview

Unpublished interviews are not included in the reference list

  • Include the term ‘interview’ within your in-text citation
  • Each person cited must be fully identified in the in-text citation
  • An interview with a person who prefers to remain anonymous may be cited in whatever form is appropriate in context. The absence of a name should be explained (e.g. All interviews were conducted in confidence, and the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement)

(Mary Smith, unpublished interview, May 7, 2017).


In K. Watson’s interview with a health-care worker on July 31, 2017 it was revealed that the issue was still in progress.


Reference components

Investigator’s Surname, First Name(s). Year. Title of Dataset in Italics. Dataset. Publisher.… or URL.

Reference list example

Irino, Tomohisa, and Ryuji Tada. 2009. Chemical and Mineral Compositions of Sediments from ODP Site 127-797. Dataset. Geological Institute, University of Tokyo.

(Irino and Tada 2009).


According to Irino and Tada (2009) …

  • The year refers to the year of publication of the dataset; not the year of publication of the paper which contains the dataset
  • The DOI is given preference over a URL due to its stable nature. If one has been assigned, include it in your reference. If you cannot locate a DOI, include the item’s URL

Generative Artificial Intelligence (Gen AI)

Tools like Open AI’s ChatGPT, Google’s Bard, and Writesonic’s ChatSonic produce text in response to prompts. Other tools produce music, art, and code. They are examples of nonrecoverable sources, meaning the content they produce is not accessible to anyone other than the person who generated it. People cannot be directed to a particular location to find it. Additionally, they are not considered scholarly sources as their responses are based on the datasets they are trained on, and the true origin of the information is unknown.

Content produced by generative AI may be inaccurate, unreliable and unethical, and may contain errors, biases, or other issues. Before you begin your assignment, check your unit outline and assignment guidelines, or ask your lecturer as using the tools may be prohibited. If you have been provided with specific guidelines on how to reference generative AI outputs within your unit, you should follow them.

If you are allowed to use generative AI in your assignment, you must include:

  • a written declaration, detailing which tools were used and to what extent, and descriptions of how the information was generated, including the exact wording of prompts used.
  • an in-text citation, if the generated text has been quoted or paraphrased within the text of your assignment.

Note: Information about referencing ChatGPT and other generative AI tools will continue to be updated. Check for updates on this evolving topic.

A declaration must be included in your assignment after your reference list. It should detail which tools you have used to generate content in the process of completing your assignment and how they have been employed. The declaration must include the prompts you have used to generate information.

The format should be as follows:

I acknowledge the use of (insert AI tool name and URL) in the preparation and/or writing of my assignment. I have used (insert AI tool name) to assist with: (delete items from the following list that do not apply):

  • Research: I generated an overview of my topic to assist with the research process.
  • Idea generation: I generated suggestions on possible topics or angles to explore within my assignment.
  • Clarifying: I generated explanations/examples to help me understand confusing or complex topics.
  • Structure and organisation: I generated an assignment plan.
  • Writing: I generated text which I adapted in my assignment. I have indicated through in-text citations where text has been quoted or paraphrased.
  • Other: Please provide a description of how you have used the tool.

The following prompts were input into (insert AI tool name):

  • Prompt one
  • Prompt two etc.

Declaration example

I acknowledge the use of ChatGPT ( in the preparation and/or writing of my assignment. I have used ChatGPT to assist with:

  • Research: I generated an overview of my topic to assist with the research process.
  • Writing: I generated text which I adapted in my assignment. I have indicated through in-text citations where text has been quoted or paraphrased.

The following prompts were input into ChatGPT:

  • Are dogs better than cats?

In accordance with the Chicago 17th Author-Date style, when you have quoted or paraphrased text generated by an AI, you must include an in-text citation, acknowledging the tool you have used. You are not required to include a reference list entry as this is considered a type of personal communication.

In-text citation

Provide the name of the tool you have used, and the date the information was generated using the format below.

(ChatGPT, May 12, 2023).


According to ChatGPT (May 12, 2023)…

If quoting

Use quotation marks to distinguish between your own words and the words generated by the tool:

Dogs and cats represent the most common pets in Australia; however, there is some debate as to which is better. “Some people may prefer dogs because they are considered to be more loyal and protective, while others may prefer cats because they are independent and low maintenance” (ChatGPT, May 12, 2023).

Note Declaration: Ensure the prompt used is included in the declaration.

Multiple sources

If the GenAI text discusses theories or specific ideas, you should include additional sources as evidence that these are supported by scholarly research. In the in-text, include the sources in the same set of brackets, ordered alphabetically, chronologically, or by importance, whichever best suits your work. Separate the citations with semi-colons:

The development of creative skills can offer a range of benefits, including enhancing problem-solving by encouraging divergent, out-of-the-box thinking (ChatGPT, February 20, 2023; Sweller 2009).

Provide a reference list entry for each additional source used, following the appropriate format (journal article, webpage, etc.).

Ensure the prompt used for the GenAI is included in the declaration.