Indigenous Knowledges are those which are held and continuously developed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. IP Australia (2021) defines two distinct areas:
The way in which Indigenous Knowledges is referenced depends on whether, and how the information has been recorded.
Indigenous authored sources
If you have read a book or journal article, watched a YouTube video or listened to a podcast created by an Indigenous person (the information was recorded in a format that can be retrieved) follow the standard guidelines provided in this guide to create your in-text citation and reference list entry, according to the source type (e.g. journal article, book, video etc.).
Non-Indigenous authored sources
Indigenous Knowledge may be communicated by non-Indigenous authors. Wherever possible, the author, the Indigenous person, and the appropriate community or language group should be referenced within your narrative or in your in-text citations (if an individual is not mentioned, include the community or language group alone). If the source does not provide this information, use the broader term ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ within the citation before the source details.
In-text example - Non-Indigenous authored - Known individual or language group
The Government policy of removing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their parents continues to have a considerable impact, despite formally ending in 1969. “Stories such as this need to be told as we, as Aboriginal people, suffer a lot.” (Ryder, Ballardong Noongar, as quoted by Clark 2021, para. 12).
In-text example - Non-Indigenous authored - Unknown individual or language group
The Yugul Mangi Rangers suggest that burning is guided by “the old people” (Indigenous ancestors) and typically occurs directly after the rain. Knowledge is communicated orally and learned through experience (Indigenous Knowledge, as quoted by McKerney et al. 2020, 1000).
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have an oral tradition, meaning their knowledges, beliefs and customs are passed down verbally or through other cultural expressions. If the information has been communicated with you directly (e.g. you have spoken to an Indigenous person directly) and you have permission to use it in your work, follow the guidelines for referencing a Personal Communication, but also include the Indigenous community or language group, if known.
For example, the in-text citation will be displayed as:
(I. Cumming, Whadjuk Noongar, personal communication, July 1, 2021).
Reference list examples
Kain, Erik. 2016. “Hold the Door,” Review of Game of Thrones, season 6/episode 5, by Jack Bender. Forbes, May 22, 2016. https://www.forbes.com/sites/erikkain/2016/05/22/game-of-thrones-season-6-episode-5-review-hold-the-door/#23b2a8a01b77.
Lane, Anthony. 2019. “Toy Story 4 Plays it Again,” Review of Toy Story 4, by Josh Cooley. The New Yorker, July 1, 2019. https://newyorker.com/magazine/2019/07/01/toy-story-4-plays-it-again.
Robbins. Mark. 2011. Review of The American Bird Conservancy Guide to Bird Conservation, by Daniel J. Lebbin, Michael J. Parr and George H. Fenwick. The Quarterly Review of Biology 86 (4): 343-344. https://doi.org/10.1086/662504.
According to Robbins (2011) …
(B. Burns, text message to author, May 12, 2019).
…“there was no basis for the copyright claim” (J. Smith, personal communication, February 9, 2016).
In J. Smith’s personal communication with her lecturer on February 9, 2016, she reasoned that “there was no basis for the copyright claim.”
(Mary Smith, unpublished interview, May 7, 2017).
In K. Watson’s interview with a health-care worker on July 31, 2017 it was revealed that the issue was still in progress.
Reference list example
Irino, Tomohisa, and Ryuji Tada. 2009. Chemical and Mineral Compositions of Sediments from ODP Site 127-797. Dataset. Geological Institute, University of Tokyo. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726855.
(Irino and Tada 2009).
According to Irino and Tada (2009) …