Chicago 17th Author-Date

(formerly Chicago 17th B)

Please check the assignment formatting requirements for your individual unit as they may differ from the advice provided in the Chicago manual. PhD and Masters by research students should consult the relevant publication manual for formatting information.

Page layout

  • Begin the reference list on a new page at the end of your work
  • Place the label References, centred on the top of the page
  • Apply a hanging indent of 1.27cm to each reference list entry

Order of references

  • Arrange the list alphabetically by the first author’s surname (family name) or the organisation name. Where there is no author, use the first word of the title (other than A, An, or The)
  • If there are multiple works by the same author(s), order by publication date with the oldest ones first. References with no date (n.d.) appear after references with dates
  • If there are multiple works by the same author(s) published in the same year, order alphabetically by the title of the work. Add a, b, c after the year to differentiate the works

Title capitalisation

  • All titles should appear in headline-style capitalisation (where each significant word is capitalised). Example: Youth Subcultures: Theory, History and the Australian Experience

DOIs and URLs

  • A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a string of numbers, letters and symbols which uniquely identifies, and creates a permanent link to a journal article, book or other online document, e.g. 10.1108/HER-10-2015-0023.
  • In the Chicago style, DOIs are preceded by For example:
  • The DOI is given preference over the URL due to its stable nature. If one has been assigned, include it in your reference list entry.
  • If you cannot locate a DOI, include the online article, book or document’s URL.
  • DOIs and URLs are presented as plain text links, preceded by https://… and followed by a full stop. For example:

Where can I find the DOI?
DOIs will usually be presented on the first page of an article or with the publication details. If you cannot locate a DOI, do a quick search in the document by clicking CTRL + F (Windows) or Command + F (Mac) and entering doi in the search box

Sample reference list


Arkoudis, Sophie, Mollie Dollinger, Chi Baik, and Allan Patience. 2019. “International Students’ Experience in Australian Higher Education: Can We Do Better?” Higher Education 77 (5): 799-813.

The Australian. 2016. “A Higher Education Return.” August 18, 2016.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics). 2021. Education and Work, Australia. Canberra, ACT: ABS.

Boulton, Chris A., Emily Hughes, Carmel Kent, Joanne R. Smith, and Hywel T. P. Williams. 2019. “Student Engagement and Wellbeing Over Time at a Higher Education Institution.” PLoS ONE 14 (11): e0225770.

Forsyth, Hannah. 2014a. “Dreaming of Higher Education.” Southerly 74 (2): 119-142.

Forsyth, Hannah. 2014b. A History of the Modern Australian University. Sydney: NewSouth Publishing.

Forsyth, Hannah. 2017. “Post-War Political Economics and the Growth of Australian University Research, c.1945-1965.” History of Education Review 46 (1): 15-32.

MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). 2019. The Future of Higher Education in the Age of Disruption. YouTube video, 47:32.

Rudick, C. Kyle, and Deanna P. Dannels. 2018. “ ‘Yes, and …’: Continuing the Scholarly Conversation About Immigration and Higher Education.” Communication Education 67 (1): 120-123.

Tierney, William G., and Michael Lanford. 2016. “Conceptualizing Innovation in Higher Education.” In Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research edited by Michael B. Paulsen, 1-40. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). 2016. Global Education Monitoring Report, 2016: Place: Inclusive and Sustainable Cities. Paris, France: UNESCO.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). n.d. “Education Transforms Lives.” UNESCO. Accessed January 31, 2023.

The World Bank. 2021. “Higher Education.” The World Bank.

Referencing checklist

This brief checklist highlights some general points to pay attention to when editing your in-text citations and reference list. For the components and formatting required for specific reference types, please consult the relevant sections of this Chicago referencing guide.

In-text citations

Example: (Smith, Jones, and Lopez 2018).

Reference list

Example: Smith, Ben, Brooke A. Burke, and Jay M. Lopez.

Example: Networked Privacy: How Teenagers Negotiate Context in Social Media