Chicago 17th Author-Date

(formerly Chicago 17th B)

The author variations below apply to all reference types (books, journal articles, websites, etc.).

For the reference list entries:

  • All author names (first, middle and last names) are listed in full except when only the author initials are provided
  • When there are two or more authors, the first author’s name is inverted with the Surname appearing first, followed by the first and middle names, if given. All subsequent author names are listed in the format of First Name Surname. For example: Smith, Ben, Brooke J. Burke, and Shae Anne Barnes.
  • If only initials are given, put a full stop after each initial and a space between the initials, e.g. Lee, S. A.
  • Include a comma to separate each author’s name and use ‘and’ before the last author’s name (e.g. Smith, Ben A., and Brooke J. Burke).
  • List authors in the order they appear on the source you are referencing.

No author

If no personal author is given, check to see if an organisation has acted as the author. Where there are no authors and you are sure that your source is credible, follow the guidelines below:

  • Use the title of the work in place of the author in the in-text citation and in the reference list
  • If the title is too long, shorten it in the in-text citation but always include the first word of the title
  • If the item is a smaller part of a publication (e.g. journal article, book chapter), enclose the title in quotation marks in both the in-text and reference list
  • If the item is a book, brochure, website or report, italicise the title both in the in-text and reference list
  • Use headline style capitalisation (all major words start with a capital letter) for the title in the in-text and the reference list

Note: Newspaper or magazine articles are exceptions to the above guidelines. Refer to the Newspaper and magazine article example in this guide.

In-text citation

(“A Profession in Charge” 2015).


In the article “A Profession in Charge” (2015) …

Reference list

“A Profession in Charge of its Future - A Vision for 2030.” 2015. Veterinary Record 177 (20): 503-504.

One or two authors

  • List author(s) in every citation
  • Include all authors in the reference list entry

In-text citation

(Burns 2015).


Burns (2015) claimed that…

(Lane and Catling 2016).


Lane and Catling (2016) found that…

Reference list

Burns, Timothy. 2015. “Philosophy and Poetry: A New Look at an Old Quarrel.” The American Political Science Review 109 (2): 326-338.

Lane, Rod, and Simon Catling. 2016. “Preservice Primary Teachers’ Depth and Accuracy of Knowledge of Tropical Cyclones.” Journal of Geography 115 (5): 198-211.

Three authors

  • For in-text citations, include all author surnames
  • Include all authors in the reference list entry

In-text citation

(Thomas, Russell, and Warren 2018).


Thomas, Russell, and Warren (2018) found that…

Reference list

Thomas, M’Balia, Alisa L. Russell, and Hannah V. Warren. 2018. “The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly of the Pedagogy in Harry Potter: An Inquiry into the Personal Practical Knowledge of Remus Lupin, Rubeus Hagrid, and Serverus Snape.” The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas 91 (4-5): 186-192.

Four or more authors

  • For in-text citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (meaning and others)
  • List up to ten authors in the reference list. For more than ten authors, list the first seven authors, followed by et al.

In-text citation

(Crysel et al. 2015).


Crysel et al. (2015) claimed that…

Reference list

Crysel, Laura C., Corey L. Cook, Tatiana Schember, and Gregory D. Webster. 2015. “Harry Potter and the Measures of Personality: Extraverted Gryffindors, Agreeable Hufflepuffs, Clever Ravenclaws, and Manipulative Slytherins.” Personality and Individual Differences 83:174-179.

Organisation as author

  • If required, organisation names can be abbreviated for the in-text citation, as shown in the example below
  • If you have used the abbreviated name in the in-text citation, list the organisation’s full name in the first in-text citation followed by the abbreviated name thereafter. For the reference list, display the abbreviation first followed by the organisation’s full name in brackets in the reference list e.g. WHO (World Health Organisation)
  • Where multiple departments are listed, use the organisation most responsible for the information as the author. In government documents particularly, the hierarchy is often displayed, for example: Royal Perth Hospital, Department of Health, Government of Western Australia. The smallest department is usually primarily responsible for the content (in this case, Royal Perth Hospital)

First in-text citation

(World Health Organisation [WHO] 2018).


According to the report by the World Health Organisation (WHO 2018) …

Subsequent citations

(WHO 2018).


According to the WHO (2018) …

Reference list

WHO (World Health Organisation). 2018. Global Status Report on Road Safety 2018. Geneva: World Health Organisation.