Chicago 17th B

Formatting your reference list

Please check the assignment formatting requirements for your individual unit as they may differ from the advice provided in the Chicago manual.

  • Begin the reference list on a new page at the end of your work, preceding the index if there is one
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by the first author’s surname or organisation name. Where there is no author, use the first word of the title (other than A, An, or The)
  • All titles should appear in headline-style capitalisation (where each significant word is capitalised)
  • Apply a hanging indent of 1.27cm to each reference list entry
  • All DOIs and URLs should be presented in their resolved form (e.g. beginning with https://…).

Download our handy Chicago 17B referencing checklist which highlights some points that you will need to pay attention to when reviewing your in-text citations and reference list.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI), is a string of numbers, letters and symbols that creates a permanent link to a journal article, book or other online document, e.g. 10.1108/HER-10-2015-0023.

In the Chicago Author-Date style, DOIs are presented as plain text links and preceded by… followed by a full stop. For example:

Where can I find the DOI?
DOIs will usually be presented on the first page of an article or with the publication details. If you cannot locate a DOI, do a quick search in the document by clicking CTRL + F (Windows) or Command + F (Mac) and entering doi in the search box

Sample reference list


Abraham, Akampurira. 2014. Project Planning and Management: An Aspect of Development. Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag.

Burns, Timothy. 2015. “Philosophy and Poetry: A New Look at an Old Quarrel.” The American Political Science Review 109 (2): 326-338.

Clarke, Pamela, and Jacqueline Fawcett. 2014a. “Life as a Mentor.” Nursing Science Quarterly 27 (3): 213-215.

Clarke, Pamela, and Jaqueline Fawcett. 2014b. “Life as a Nurse Researcher.” Nursing Science Quarterly 27 (1): 37-41.

Crysel, Laura C., Corey L. Cook, Tatiana Schember, and Gregory D. Webster. 2015. “Harry Potter and the Measures of Personality: Extraverted Gryffindors, Agreeable Hufflepuffs, Clever Ravenclaws, and Manipulative Slytherins.” Personality and Individual Differences 83:174-179.

CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). 2016. Australia 2030: Navigating our Uncertain Future. Canberra, ACT: CSIRO.

Department of Education. 2019. “Higher Education Statistics.” Australian Government.

Doyle, Timothy, Doug McEachern, and Sherilyn MacGregor. 2015. Environment and Politics. 4th ed. Milton Park, NSW: Routledge.

Government of Western Australia. n.d. Perth Zoo. Accessed March 20, 2017.

Haberman, Maggie, and Peter Baker. 2017. “In Call with Times Reporter, Trump Projects Air of Calm over Charges.” New York Times, November 1, 2017.

Leaver, Tama. 2012. “Social Media Rivers.” iLecture. 0ad2a1e19e24.

Maldonado, Julie, Christine Shearer, Robin Bronen, Kristina Peterson, and Heather Lazrus. 2013. “The Impact of Climate Change on Tribal Communities in the US: Displacement, Relocation, and Human Rights.” Climatic Change 120 (3): 601-614.

Nowell, Kirstin, Juan Li, Mikhail Paltsyn, and Rishi Kumar Sharma. 2016. An Ounce of Prevention: Snow Leopard Crime Revisited. Cambridge, UK: Traffic.

OfficialPsy. 2012. Gangnam Style. YouTube video, 4:12.

Renner, Adam, Bridget Brew, and Crystal Proctor. 2013. “Plotting Inequality, Building Resistance.” In Rethinking Mathematics: Teaching Social Justice by the Numbers, 2nd ed., edited by Eric Gutstein and Bob Peterson, 175-180. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.

Richardson, Christine. 2015. “RDA Management.” PowerPoint slides.

Weekend Edition Saturday. 2015. “Fairytales Exist: Migrants Get a Football Team of Their Own.” May 9, 2015.

WHO (World Health Organization). 2018. Global Status Report on Road Safety 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization.