Indigenous knowledges are those which are held and continuously developed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia or other First Nations people globally. IP Australia (2021) defines two distinct areas:
How this information is referenced depends on how you have accessed it.
If you have read a book or journal article, watched a YouTube video or listened to a podcast created by an Indigenous person, follow the guidelines provided in this guide to create your in-text citation and reference list entry according to the source type.
Indigenous knowledge may be communicated by non-Indigenous authors. Wherever possible, the author, the Indigenous person, and the appropriate community or language group should be referenced within your narrative or in your in-text citations (if an individual is not mentioned, include the community or language group alone). If the source does not provide this information, use the broader term ‘Indigenous knowledge’ within the citation before the source details.
The Government policy of removing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their parents continues to have a considerable impact, despite formally ending in 1969. “Stories such as this need to be told as we, as Aboriginal people, suffer a lot” (Ryder, Ballardong Noongar, as cited in Clark, 2021, para. 12).
The Yugul Mangi Rangers suggest that burning is guided by the “old people” (Indigenous ancestors) and typically occurs directly after the rain. Knowledge is communicated orally and learned through experience (Indigenous knowledge, as cited by McKemey et al., 2020, p. 1000).
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have an oral tradition, meaning their knowledges, beliefs and customs are passed down verbally or through other cultural expressions. If the information has been communicated with you directly and you have permission to use it in your work, follow the guidelines for referencing a Personal Communication, but also include the Indigenous community or language group, if known.
e.g. (I. Cumming, Whadjuk Noongar, personal communication, July 1, 2021).
Reviewer Surname, Initial(s). (year). Title of review [Review of the medium Title of medium in italics, by Author Initial(s). Author Surname]. Source details as applicable.
Reference list examples
Lane, A. (2019, July 1). ‘Toy story 4’ plays it again [Review of the movie Toy story 4, by J. Cooley, Dir.]. New Yorker. https://newyorker.com/magazine/2019/07/01/toy-story-4-plays-it-again
Robbins, M. (2011). Conservation biology [Review of the book The American bird conservancy guide to bird conservation, by D. J. Lebbin, M. J. Parr, & G. H. Fenwick]. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 86(4), 343-344. https://doi.org/10.1086/662504
Wiwibloggs. (2020, July 6). Husavik song reaction: Eurovision song contest: The story of Fire Saga [Review of the song Husavik, by W. Ferrell & M. Marianne]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VmxjqpMarss
Robbins (2011) suggests…
“What’s familiar here is not the plot but the emotional texture” (Lane, 2019, para. 4).
Lane (2019) suggests that “what’s familiar here is not the plot but the emotional texture” (para. 4).
Personal communications are not included in the reference list
“…” (T. S. Reed, personal communication, September 20, 2019).
According to P. M. Walker (personal communication, April 18, 2015) …
Author Surname, Initial(s). (year). Title of data set in italics [Data set]. Publisher Name. https://doi.org/DOI or URL
Reference list example
Irino, T., & Tada, R. (2009). Chemical and mineral compositions from ODP site 127-797 [Data set]. PANGAEA. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726855
(Irino & Tada, 2009).
Irino and Tada (2009) collected…
Organisation name. (year). Title of curriculum document: Subtitle (Version number). URL
Reference list examples
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science: Sequence of content F-6 strand: Science understanding (Version 8.1). https://docs.acara.edu.au/resources/Science_-_Sequence_of_content.pdf
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2016). The Australian curriculum: Humanities and social sciences: 7 - 10 civics and citizenship (Version 8.3). https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/umbraco/Surface/Download/Pdf?subject=7%E2%809310%20Civics%and%20Citizenship&type=F10
School Curriculum and Standards Authority. (2016). Mathematics - scope and sequence - P-6 (Version 8.1). https://k10outline.scsa.wa.edu.au/home/teaching/curriculum-browser/mathematics-v8/overview/Maths_P-10_Scope-and-Sequence_Phase_1_March_2016.PDF
(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2016).
According the School Curriculum and Standards Authority (2016)…
Optional organisation name abbreviation
(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2016).
The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, 2016) states….
ACARA (2016) shows…
Tools like Open AI’s ChatGPT, Google’s Bard, and Writesonic’s ChatSonic produce text in response to prompts. Other tools produce music, art, and code. They are examples of nonrecoverable sources, meaning the content they produce is not accessible to anyone other than the person who generated it. People cannot be directed to a particular location to find it. Additionally, they are not considered scholarly sources as their responses are based on the datasets they are trained on, and the true origin of the information is unknown.
Content produced by generative AI may be inaccurate, unreliable and unethical, and may contain errors, biases, or other issues. Before you begin your assignment, check your unit outline and assignment guidelines, or ask your lecturer as using the tools may be prohibited. If you have been provided with specific guidelines on how to reference generative AI outputs within your unit, you should follow them.
If you are allowed to use generative AI in your assignment, you must include:
A declaration must be included in your assignment after your reference list. It should detail which tools you have used to generate content in the process of completing your assignment and how they have been employed. The declaration must include the prompts you have used to generate information.
The format should be as follows:
I acknowledge the use of (insert AI tool name and URL) in the preparation and/or writing of my assignment. I have used (insert AI tool name) to assist with: (delete items from the following list that do not apply):
The following prompts were input into (insert AI tool name):
I acknowledge the use of ChatGPT (https://chat.openai.com/chat) in the preparation and/or writing of my assignment. I have used ChatGPT to assist with:
The following prompts were input into ChatGPT:
Where you have quoted or paraphrased text generated by an AI, you must include an in-text reference acknowledging the tool you have used.
If the text provides any theories or specific ideas, you should also include a reference to a scholarly source confirming the accuracy of the information presented. Refer to multiple sources in the information below for more information.
Dogs and cats represent the most common pets in Australia; however, there is some debate as to which is better. “Some people may prefer dogs because they are considered to be more loyal and protective, while others may prefer cats because they are independent and low maintenance” (ChatGPT, January 17, 2023).
Dogs and cats represent the most common pets in Australia; however, there is some debate as to which is better. Dogs are seen as useful and loyal, protecting homes and families and can often be more affectionate, whereas cats are less needy and may fit better into busy people’s lives (ChatGPT, January 17, 2023).
The development of creative skills can offer a range of benefits, including enhancing problem-solving by encouraging divergent, out-of-the-box thinking (ChatGPT, February 20, 2023; Sweller, 2009).