APA 7th referencing

Indigenous knowledges

Indigenous knowledges are those which are held and continuously developed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia or other First Nations people globally. IP Australia (2021) defines two distinct areas:

  • Cultural Expressions - including language, stories, songlines, music, performance, visual arts, crafts, architecture, designs and symbols
  • Knowledge - including know-how, practices, skills and innovations, often related but not limited to agricultural, scientific, technical, ecological, medicinal and biodiversity-related knowledge.

How this information is referenced depends on how you have accessed it.

Published sources

Indigenous authored

If you have read a book or journal article, watched a YouTube video or listened to a podcast created by an Indigenous person, follow the guidelines provided in this guide to create your in-text citation and reference list entry according to the source type.

Non-Indigenous authored

Indigenous knowledge may be communicated by non-Indigenous authors. Wherever possible, the author, the Indigenous person, and the appropriate community or language group should be referenced within your narrative or in your in-text citations (if an individual is not mentioned, include the community or language group alone). If the source does not provide this information, use the broader term ‘Indigenous knowledge’ within the citation before the source details.

In-text example - Non-Indigenous authored - Known individual or language group

The Government policy of removing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their parents continues to have a considerable impact, despite formally ending in 1969. “Stories such as this need to be told as we, as Aboriginal people, suffer a lot” (Ryder, Ballardong Noongar, as cited in Clark, 2021, para. 12).

In-text example - Non-Indigenous authored - Unknown individual or language group

The Yugul Mangi Rangers suggest that burning is guided by the “old people” (Indigenous ancestors) and typically occurs directly after the rain. Knowledge is communicated orally and learned through experience (Indigenous knowledge, as cited by McKemey et al., 2020, p. 1000).

  • It may be appropriate to refer to an Indigenous Elder as Aunty or Uncle in your narrative if you have permission to do so.
  • In-text references for non-Indigenous authors will follow the format of Authors citing other authors.

Non-published sources

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have an oral tradition, meaning their knowledges, beliefs and customs are passed down verbally or through other cultural expressions. If the information has been communicated with you directly and you have permission to use it in your work, follow the guidelines for referencing a Personal Communication, but also include the Indigenous community or language group, if known.

e.g. (I. Cumming, Whadjuk Noongar, personal communication, July 1, 2021).

Review (book, movie or other)

Reference components

Reviewer Surname, Initial(s). (year). Title of review [Review of the medium Title of medium in italics, by Author Initial(s). Author Surname]. Source details as applicable.

Reference list examples

Lane, A. (2019, July 1). ‘Toy story 4’ plays it again [Review of the movie Toy story 4, by J. Cooley, Dir.]. New Yorker. https://newyorker.com/magazine/2019/07/01/toy-story-4-plays-it-again

Robbins, M. (2011). Conservation biology [Review of the book The American bird conservancy guide to bird conservation, by D. J. Lebbin, M. J. Parr, & G. H. Fenwick]. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 86(4), 343-344. https://doi.org/10.1086/662504

Wiwibloggs. (2020, July 6). Husavik song reaction: Eurovision song contest: The story of Fire Saga [Review of the song Husavik, by W. Ferrell & M. Marianne]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VmxjqpMarss

(Robbins, 2011).


Robbins (2011) suggests…

If quoting

“What’s familiar here is not the plot but the emotional texture” (Lane, 2019, para. 4).


Lane (2019) suggests that “what’s familiar here is not the plot but the emotional texture” (para. 4).

  • The structure of your reference will depend on where you find the review. Provide the details of the source as applicable for that reference type
  • If the review is untitled, leave this component out of your reference. Following the date, include the information provided within square brackets

Personal communication

Personal communications are not included in the reference list

  • Personal communications may not be acceptable to include in your assignment – please check with your lecturer/tutor before doing so
  • Personal communications are works which cannot be recovered by the reader. They include emails, text messages, online chats, letters, memos, personal (unpublished) interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches etc.
  • Cite in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible
  • Quotations from participants whom you interviewed as part of your research are treated differently than quotations from published works. See page 278 of the APA 7th manual for more information

“…” (T. S. Reed, personal communication, September 20, 2019).

According to P. M. Walker (personal communication, April 18, 2015) …

Data set

Reference components

Author Surname, Initial(s). (year). Title of data set in italics [Data set]. Publisher Name. https://doi.org/DOI or URL

Reference list example

Irino, T., & Tada, R. (2009). Chemical and mineral compositions from ODP site 127-797 [Data set]. PANGAEA. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726855

(Irino & Tada, 2009).


Irino and Tada (2009) collected…

Australian curriculum

Reference components

Organisation name. (year). Title of curriculum document: Subtitle (Version number). URL

Reference list examples

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science: Sequence of content F-6 strand: Science understanding (Version 8.1). https://docs.acara.edu.au/resources/Science_-_Sequence_of_content.pdf

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2016). The Australian curriculum: Humanities and social sciences: 7 - 10 civics and citizenship (Version 8.3). https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/umbraco/Surface/Download/Pdf?subject=7%E2%809310%20Civics%and%20Citizenship&type=F10

School Curriculum and Standards Authority. (2016). Mathematics - scope and sequence - P-6 (Version 8.1). https://k10outline.scsa.wa.edu.au/home/teaching/curriculum-browser/mathematics-v8/overview/Maths_P-10_Scope-and-Sequence_Phase_1_March_2016.PDF

(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2016).


According the School Curriculum and Standards Authority (2016)…

Optional organisation name abbreviation

First citation:

(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2016).

The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, 2016) states….

Subsequent citations:

(ACARA, 2016).

ACARA (2016) shows…

  • Download the curriculum document for date and version information

Generative Artificial Intelligence (Gen AI)

Tools like Open AI’s ChatGPT, Google’s Bard, and Writesonic’s ChatSonic produce text in response to prompts. Other tools produce music, art, and code. They are examples of nonrecoverable sources, meaning the content they produce is not accessible to anyone other than the person who generated it. People cannot be directed to a particular location to find it. Additionally, they are not considered scholarly sources as their responses are based on the datasets they are trained on, and the true origin of the information is unknown.

Content produced by generative AI may be inaccurate, unreliable and unethical, and may contain errors, biases, or other issues. Before you begin your assignment, check your unit outline and assignment guidelines, or ask your lecturer as using the tools may be prohibited. If you have been provided with specific guidelines on how to reference generative AI outputs within your unit, you should follow them.

If you are allowed to use generative AI in your assignment, you must include:

  • a written declaration, detailing which tools were used and to what extent, and descriptions of how the information was generated, including the exact wording of prompts used.
  • an in-text citation and reference list entry, if the generated text has been quoted or paraphrased within the text of your assignment.

Note: Information about referencing ChatGPT and other generative AI tools will continue to be updated. Check for updates on this evolving topic.

A declaration must be included in your assignment after your reference list. It should detail which tools you have used to generate content in the process of completing your assignment and how they have been employed. The declaration must include the prompts you have used to generate information.

The format should be as follows:

I acknowledge the use of (insert AI tool name and URL) in the preparation and/or writing of my assignment. I have used (insert AI tool name) to assist with: (delete items from the following list that do not apply):

  • Research: I generated an overview of my topic to assist with the research process.
  • Idea generation: I generated suggestions on possible topics or angles to explore within my assignment.
  • Clarifying: I generated explanations/examples to help me understand confusing or complex topics.
  • Structure and organisation: I generated an assignment plan.
  • Writing: I generated text which I adapted in my assignment. I have indicated through in-text citations where text has been quoted or paraphrased.
  • Other: Please provide a description of how you have used the tool.

The following prompts were input into (insert AI tool name):

  • Prompt one
  • Prompt two etc.

Declaration example

I acknowledge the use of ChatGPT (https://chat.openai.com/chat) in the preparation and/or writing of my assignment. I have used ChatGPT to assist with:

  • Research: I generated an overview of my topic to assist with the research process.
  • Writing: I generated text which I adapted in my assignment. I have indicated through in-text citations where text has been quoted or paraphrased.

The following prompts were input into ChatGPT:

  • Are dogs better than cats?

In the APA style, when you have quoted or paraphrased text generated by an AI, you must include an in-text citation and reference list entry acknowledging the tool you have used.

In-text citation

Provide the author of the tool (e.g. OpenAI) and the year of the version used.

(OpenAI, 2023).


According to OpenAI (2023)…

If quoting:

Use quotation marks to distinguish between your own words and the words generated by the tool:

Dogs and cats represent the most common pets in Australia; however, there is some debate as to which is better. “Some people may prefer dogs because they are considered to be more loyal and protective, while others may prefer cats because they are independent and low maintenance” (OpenAI, 2023).

Reference list

Reference components

Author of Tool. (Year). Name of Tool in Italics (version of tool) [Type of model]. URL

Reference list example

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (May 24 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat


Ensure the prompt used is included in the declaration.

Multiple sources

If the GenAI text discusses any theories or specific ideas, you should include additional source(s) as evidence that these are supported by scholarly research. Include the sources in the same set of brackets, ordered alphabetically. Separate the citations with semi-colons:

The development of creative skills can offer a range of benefits, including enhancing problem-solving by encouraging divergent, out-of-the-box thinking (OpenAI, 2023; Sweller, 2009).

Provide a reference list entry for each source, following the appropriate format (journal article, book, webpage etc.).

Ensure the prompt used is included in the declaration.