Indigenous knowledges are those which are held and continuously developed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia or other First Nations people globally. IP Australia (2021) defines two distinct areas:
How this information is referenced depends on how you have accessed it.
If you have read a book or journal article, watched a YouTube video or listened to a podcast created by an Indigenous person, follow the guidelines provided in this guide to create your in-text citation and reference list entry according to the source type.
Indigenous knowledge may be communicated by non-Indigenous authors. Wherever possible, the author, the Indigenous person, and the appropriate community or language group should be referenced within your narrative or in your in-text citations (if an individual is not mentioned, include the community or language group alone). If the source does not provide this information, use the broader term ‘Indigenous knowledge’ within the citation before the source details.
The Government policy of removing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their parents continues to have a considerable impact, despite formally ending in 1969. “Stories such as this need to be told as we, as Aboriginal people, suffer a lot” (Ryder, Ballardong Noongar, as cited in Clark, 2021, para. 12).
The Yugul Mangi Rangers suggest that burning is guided by the “old people” (Indigenous ancestors) and typically occurs directly after the rain. Knowledge is communicated orally and learned through experience (Indigenous knowledge, as cited by McKemey et al., 2020, p. 1000).
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have an oral tradition, meaning their knowledges, beliefs and customs are passed down verbally or through other cultural expressions. If the information has been communicated with you directly and you have permission to use it in your work, follow the guidelines for referencing a Personal Communication, but also include the Indigenous community or language group, if known.
e.g. (I. Cumming, Whadjuk Noongar, personal communication, July 1, 2021).
Reference list examples
Lane, A. (2019, July 1). ‘Toy story 4’ plays it again [Review of the movie Toy story 4, by J. Cooley, Dir.]. New Yorker. https://newyorker.com/magazine/2019/07/01/toy-story-4-plays-it-again
Robbins, M. (2011). Conservation biology [Review of the book The American bird conservancy guide to bird conservation, by D. J. Lebbin, M. J. Parr, & G. H. Fenwick]. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 86(4), 343-344. https://doi.org/10.1086/662504
Wiwibloggs. (2020, July 6). Husavik song reaction: Eurovision song contest: The story of Fire Saga [Review of the song Husavik, by W. Ferrell & M. Marianne]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VmxjqpMarss
Robbins (2011) suggests…
“What’s familiar here is not the plot but the emotional texture” (Lane, 2019, para. 4).
Lane (2019) suggests that “what’s familiar here is not the plot but the emotional texture” (para. 4).
“…” (T. S. Reed, personal communication, September 20, 2019).
According to P. M. Walker (personal communication, April 18, 2015) …
Reference list example
Irino, T., & Tada, R. (2009). Chemical and mineral compositions from ODP site 127-797 [Data set]. PANGAEA. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726855
(Irino & Tada, 2009).
Irino and Tada (2009) collected…
Reference list examples
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science: Sequence of content F-6 strand: Science understanding (Version 8.1). https://docs.acara.edu.au/resources/Science_-_Sequence_of_content.pdf
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2016). The Australian curriculum: Humanities and social sciences: 7 - 10 civics and citizenship (Version 8.3). https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/umbraco/Surface/Download/Pdf?subject=7%E2%809310%20Civics%and%20Citizenship&type=F10
School Curriculum and Standards Authority. (2016). Mathematics - scope and sequence - P-6 (Version 8.1). https://k10outline.scsa.wa.edu.au/home/teaching/curriculum-browser/mathematics-v8/overview/Maths_P-10_Scope-and-Sequence_Phase_1_March_2016.PDF
(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2016).
According the School Curriculum and Standards Authority (2016)…
Optional organisation name abbreviation
(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2016).
The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, 2016) states….
ACARA (2016) shows…