These instructions for referencing tables and figures are primarily for students completing assignments at Curtin University. They are not intended for those who are publishing their work and making it publicly available (e.g. PhD thesis, journal article, blog, webpage, YouTube video etc.). When publishing and making your work publicly available, written permission to reproduce tables and figures must be obtained from the copyright holder. More information is available from Copyright at Curtin and the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.
Examples of tables and figures are provided in the scenarios below as well as in the printable version of this referencing tables and figures guide.
In the APA referencing style, an in-text citation and reference list entry provide an appropriate level of acknowledgement to the work of others for most types of materials. However, when adapting or reproducing tables and figures, additional acknowledgement of the copyright status is needed. APA requires you to provide a copyright attribution whenever you reproduce a table or figure, outlining the details of the source and the copyright owner.
This guide provides different referencing scenarios and additional information to help you acknowledge tables and figures in your assignments appropriately.
When you are reproducing (directly copying) or adapting (altered from the original) a table or figure from another source in your work.
Above the table or figure:
Below the table or figure:
Provide a caption with details of the source the table or figure was taken from:
Participant Information of Dog Owner Interviews about Dog Walking
Note. Adapted from “I Walk my Dog Because it Makes me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health,” by C. Westgarth, R. M. Christley, G. Marvin and E. Perkins, 2017, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(8), Article 936 (https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080936). CC BY.
The Ecological Model of Health Promotion/Primary Prevention
Note. From “Health Promotion,” by H. Keleher, in H. Keleher and C. MacDougall (Eds.), Understanding Health (4th ed., p. 98), 2016, Oxford University Press (https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/curtin/reader.action?docID=4747941). Copyright 2016 by Helen Keleher and Colin MacDougall.
Fossil Tooth Whorl of Ancient Shark
Note. From “Great White Shark: Carcharodon Carcharias,” by Smithsonian Institution, 2018 (https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/sharks-rays/great-white-shark). Copyright 2018 by Chip Clark/Smithsonian Institution.
A PowerPoint presentation has a different purpose from an essay or report but still requires acknowledgement of tables and figures adapted or reproduced from another source. You may want to change the way you present the information to make your slides more visually appealing. Please check with your tutor for specific requirements for referencing in PowerPoints.
On the slide, provide a Table or Figure number and a Title using the formatting shown below:
Physical Development of Inland NSW Magpies (n=36)
|Age||Weight (g)||Body length (mm)|
Galahs: Background information
Galah Sitting on a Tree Branch
At the end of your presentation, preceding the reference list, provide the caption information that would usually be included under the table or figure. See Caption components and examples.
List of tables
Table 1. Adapted from Australian Magpie: Biology and Behaviours of an Unusual Songbird (p. 124), by G. Kaplan, 2019, CSIRO Publishing (https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/curtin/reader.action?docID=5762566). Copyright 2019 by Gisela Kaplan.
List of figures
Figure 1. From Galah, by G. Johnston, 2019, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/gregjohnston/48372512176). CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.
Figure 2. From Galah Walking, by J. Bendon, 2015, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/jim_bendon_1957/16207540769/). CC BY-SA 2.0.
Your PowerPoint should always end with your reference list, detailing all the sources used in your presentation:
Bendon, J. (2015). Galah walking. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jim_bendon_1957/16207540769/
BirdLife Australia. (n.d.). Galah: Basic information. Birds in Backyards. http://www.birdsinbackyards.net/species/Eolophus-roseicapillus
Foundation for National Parks & Wildlife. (n.d.). Galah. Backyard Buddies. https://www.backyardbuddies.org.au/fact-sheets/Galah
Johnston, G. (2019). Galah. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/gregjohnston/48372512176
Kaplan, G. (2019). Australian magpie: Biology and behaviours of an unusual songbird (2nd ed.). CSIRO Publishing. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/curtin/reader.action?docID=5762566
You may wish to include your own photograph in an assignment, or you may create a table or figure from data that you have collected yourself. In this scenario you need to include a table or figure number, as well as a descriptive title. However, an attribution is not required as you are the creator of the content.
Above the table or figure:
Below the table or figure:
Sleepy Tasmanian Devil in the Rain
Pet Ownership by Occupation
When creating your own tables and figures from published data (e.g. from a report, journal article, book etc.), an in-text citation and reference list entry is usually sufficient acknowledgement of the source material.
Above the table or figure:
Australian Government Indigenous Programs and Policy Locations with Indigenous Population by Selected States
|State||Number of centres
(Services Australia, 2020)
|Total Indigenous population|
(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2017a)
Note: The in-text citation(s) can be included as part of the table or figure as shown in this example, or appear below it as in the Assignment example.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017a). 2016 Census Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander QuickStats: New South Wales. https://quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/quickstat/IQS1
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017b). 2016 Census Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander QuickStats: Western Australia. https://quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/quickstat/IQS5
Services Australia. (2020). Australian Government Indigenous programs & policy locations (AGIL) dataset [Data set]. Australian Government. https://data.gov.au/data/dataset/34b1c164-fbe8-44a0-84fd-467dba645aa7
Australia’s Indigenous people have a longstanding connection with country, valuing it for a range of cultural, social and economic reasons, in a history that goes back an estimated 60,000 years (Jacobsen et al., 2020; Olsen & Russell, 2019). Prior to colonisation, Australia comprised over 250 societies that covered the entire landmass, groups that had their own language, customs and responsibility for managing the land (Karidakis & Kelly, 2017). This responsibility has only recently begun to be handed back to Indigenous people, with Jacobsen et al. (2020) reporting 134 million hectares of land in Australia, 17% of the total landmass, as Indigenous owned. A map produced by the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES, Figure 1) shows that the bulk of this land is located in central Australia.
Area of Land and Forest that is Indigenous Owned
Note. From Australia’s Indigenous Forest Estate, by Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences, 2020 (https://data.gov.au/data/dataset/australia-s-indigenous-forest-estate-2020). CC BY.
Dillon et al. (2015) defines Indigenous land as “all land over which Indigenous people have use and rights as recognised through ownership, management, access or other special rights” (p. 6). Incorporating these broader definitions, Table 1 breaks down the total area of recognised Indigenous land in Australia.
Indigenous Land Management Categories and Size (Hectares)
|Category||Definition a||Total area b
|Owned and managed||Lands that are both owned and managed by Indigenous communities||142,306,000|
|Managed||Lands that are managed but not owned by Indigenous communities||32,357,000|
|Co-managed||Owned and managed by non-Indigenous parties, but agreements guarantee Indigenous people rights in managing land||28,028,000|
|Special rights||Lands subject to Native Title determinations and active Indigenous Land Use Agreements||304,531,000|
Note. aCategories and definitions per Dillon et al. (2015, p. 9). bArea totals provided in Jacobsen et al. (2020, p. 5).
Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences. (2020). Australia’s Indigenous forest estate. Australian Government. https://data.gov.au/data/dataset/australia-s-indigenous-forest-estate-2020
Dillon, R., Jeyasingham, J., Eades, S., & Read, S. (2015). Development of Australia’s Indigenous forest estate (2013) dataset (Research Report 15.6). Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences. https://www.agriculture.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/IndigenousForestEstate_20150828_v1.0.0.pdf
Jacobsen, R., Howell, C., & Read, S. (2020). Australia’s Indigenous land and forest estate: Separate reporting for Indigenous ownership, management and other special rights. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences. https://doi.org/10.25814/bqr0-4m20
Karidakis, M., & Kelly, B. (2017). Trends in Indigenous language usage. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 38(1), 105-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/07268602.2018.1393861
Olsen, P., & Russell, L. (2019). ‘Civilisation’ displaces Indigenous wildlife balance. Wildlife Australia, 56(4), 36-41. https://doi.org/10.3316/ielapa.887587290235282
It is important to consider copyright obligations when reusing an image. Don’t assume that a freely accessible image is available to use without permission. This article about copyright infringement illustrates the importance of permission checking before reusing images found on the web.
Many images can be freely downloaded under certain terms and conditions, while websites such as Associated Press, iStock by Getty Images, and Shutterstock require payment for a license to reuse content.
One of the easiest ways to successfully ensure that you are abiding by copyright requirements is to select Open License, Creative Commons (CC) or public domain images.
An Open License is one that grants permission to access, reuse and redistribute work with few or no restrictions. Creative Commons is the most well-known open license system.
A CC license doesn’t replace copyright. CC material is still protected by copyright, but the copyright owners have provided upfront permission for others to reuse their content in particular ways. You don’t have to seek permission from the copyright holder as long as you abide by the conditions set out in the CC license. You can find out more about the various CC licenses through the Creative Commons website.
Public domain images can refer to material in which copyright has expired and can be used without restriction; or where the copyright owner gives very broad permissions to people to use the content freely.
The following websites provide easily accessible advance search filters to quickly identify Creative Commons or public domain images:
Sometimes it can be difficult to locate copyright or license information associated with a table or figure. If it’s not presented alongside the content you want to use, do a search of the document for either ‘copyright’ or ‘CC’ using Ctrl + F (command + F on a Mac).