APA 7th referencing

Please check the assignment formatting requirements for your individual unit as they may differ from the advice provided in the APA manual. PhD and Masters by research students should consult the relevant publication manual for formatting information.

Page layout

  • Begin the reference list on a new page after the text
  • Place the label References in bold, centred on the top of the page
  • Double space the entire reference list (both within and between references)
  • Apply a hanging indent of 1.27cm to each reference list entry

Order of references

  • Arrange the list alphabetically by the first author’s surname or organisation name. Where there is no author, use the first word of the title (other than A, An, or The)
    (See Author variations for examples of no author, organisation name, and multiple authors)
  • If there are multiple works by the same author(s), order by publication date with the oldest ones first. References with no date (n.d.) precede references with dates
  • If there are multiple works by the same author(s) published in the same year, order alphabetically by the title of the work. Add a, b, c after the year to differentiate the works (See In-text citations explained for examples of multiple works by the same author)
  • If a reference list entry begins with a number, order alphabetically as though the number were spelled out i.e. order 10 as if written as ten

Title capitalisation

  • All titles, with the exception of journal titles, should be presented in sentence-case capitalisation (where only the first word, proper nouns and words following certain punctuation are capitalised)
    Example: Youth subcultures: Theory, history and the Australian experience
  • Journal titles should be presented in headline-style capitalisation (where each significant word is capitalised)
    Example: New England Journal of Medicine

DOIs and URLs

  • A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a string of numbers, letters and symbols which uniquely identifies, and creates a permanent link to, a journal article, book or other online document, e.g. 10.1108/HER-10-2015-0023.
  • In the APA style, DOIs are presented as hyperlinks and are preceded by https://doi.org/. For example: https://doi.org/10.1108/HER-10-2015-0023
  • The DOI is given preference over the URL due to its stable nature. If one has been assigned, include it in your reference list entry.
  • If you cannot locate a DOI, include the online article, book or document’s URL.
  • All DOIs and URLs should be presented in their resolved form (e.g. beginning with https://…). It is acceptable to present these links as live hyperlinks or as plain text, as long as you are consistent throughout your reference list

Where can I find the DOI?
DOIs will usually be presented on the first page of an article or with the publication details. If you cannot locate a DOI, do a quick search in the document by clicking CTRL + F (Windows) or Command + F (Mac) and entering doi in the search box

Sample reference list


Arkoudis, S., Dollinger, M., Baik, C., & Patience, A. (2019). International students’ experience in Australian higher education: Can we do better? Higher Education, 77(5), 799-813. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0302-x

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2021). Education and work, Australia. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/education/education-and-work-australia

Boulton, C. A., Hughes, E., Kent, C., Smith, J. R., & Williams, H. T. P. (2019). Student engagement and wellbeing over time at a higher education institution. PLoS ONE, 14(11), Article e0225770. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225770

Forsyth, H. (2014a). Dreaming of higher education. Southerly, 74(2), 119-142. https://doi.org/10.3316/informit.792227855125093

Forsyth, H. (2014b). A history of the modern Australian university. NewSouth Publishing.

Forsyth, H. (2017). Post-war political economics and the growth of Australian university research, c.1945-1965. History of Education Review, 46(1), 15-32. https://doi.org/10.1108/HER-10-2015-0023

A higher education return. (2016, August 18). The Australian. https://www.proquest.com/newspapers/higher-education-return/docview/1811922139/se-2?accountid=10382

Lam, K. (2014, July 16). Wearable technology in education. edtechtimes. https://edtechtimes.com/2014/07/16/wearable-technology-education/

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). (2019, February 27). The future of higher education in the age of disruption [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/NFP2S2f3io4

Rudick, C. K., & Dannels, D. P. (2018). “Yes, and … ”: Continuing the scholarly conversation about immigration and higher education. Communication Education, 67(1), 120-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2017.1392584

10 ways wearables will revolutionise education. (2015, April 28). Progressive Digital Media Technology News. https://www.proquest.com/wire-feeds/10-ways-wearables-will-revolutionise-education/docview/1677305214/se-2?accountid=10382

Tierney, W. G., & Lanford, M. (2016). Conceptualizing innovation in higher education. In M. B. Paulsen (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 1-40). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26829-3

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (n.d.). Education transforms lives. https://en.unesco.org/themes/education

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2016). Global education monitoring report, 2016: Place: Inclusive and sustainable cities. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000246230

The World Bank. (2021). Higher education. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/tertiaryeducation

Referencing checklist

This brief checklist highlights some general points to pay attention to when editing your in-text citations and reference list. For the components and formatting required for specific reference types, please consult the relevant sections of this APA referencing guide.

In-text citations

Reference list

Example: Youth subcultures: Theory, history and the Australian experience

Example: New England Journal of Medicine