Author variations

Author variations apply to all reference types (books, journal articles, reports etc.). Author surnames (family names) are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stop between the initials, e.g. Smith JA. Commas are used to separate each author’s name, e.g. Khan FM, Gibbons JP.

If there is no personal author, check to see if an organisation has acted as author. If not, omit the author from the reference and list the title of the item first

Example

Joint replacements should not cost an arm and a leg. The Australian. September 22, 2016;Commentary:13.

List all authors in the reference

Example

Khan FM, Gibbons JP. Khan’s The Physics of Radiation Therapy. 5th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2014.

List the first three authors in the reference followed by et al (meaning and others)

Example

Smith BM, Kirby M, Hoffman EA, et al. Association of dysanapsis with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among older adults. JAMA. 2020;323(22):2268-2280. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6918

List the organisation name in full

Example

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian Bushfires 2019-2020: Exploring the Short-Term Health Impacts. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2020. PHE 276. Accessed November 26, 2020. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/environment-and-health/short-term-health-impacts-2019-20-bushfires/contents/summary

Title capitalisation

Titles should appear in lower case except for the first letter of the first word, abbreviations, proper names, and names of clinical trials or study groups, e.g.

Krieger J, Song L, Philby M. Community health worker home visits for adults with uncontrolled asthma: the HomeBASE Trial randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(1):109-117. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6353

Titles of whole works such as journals and books, should appear in headline style capitalisation, where all significant words start with a capital letter.

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI), is a string of numbers, letters and symbols that creates a permanent link to a journal article, book or other online document, e.g. 10.1108/HER-10-2015-0023. In the Vancouver style, DOIs are presented as metadata, not as hyperlinks, e.g. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6353

Journal and news articles

Journal titles are abbreviated in the Vancouver style, e.g. New England Journal of Medicine appears as N Engl J Med in the reference list entry. A list of abbreviations is available through PubMed at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. Click on Journals (under Explore) and enter the full journal title to view its abbreviation. Alternative sources of journal title abbreviations are listed in appendix B of Citing Medicine.

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of article: subtitle. Abbreviated Journal Title in Italics. Year;Volume(Issue):Page range. doi:DOI or URL

Reference examples

Boatwright KD, Sperry ML. Accuracy of medical marijuana claims made by popular websites. J Pharm Pract. 2020;33(4):457-464. doi:10.1177/0897190018818907

Naghavi M, Abajobir AA, Abbafati C, et al. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2017;390(10100):1151-1210. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32152-9

Barton E, Twining L, Walters L. Understanding the decision to commence a dose administration aid. Aust Fam Physician. 2017;46(12):943-947. doi:10.3316/informit.299927696378708

Style notes

  • A DOI is preferable to a URL if one is available
  • If referencing a print journal article, omit the DOI/URL

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of article: subtitle. Abbreviated Journal Title in Italics. Published online Month Day, Year. doi:DOI or URL

Reference example

Kumar D, Warsha FN, Helmstetter N, Gupta V. Efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants for treatment of left ventricular thrombus; a systematic review. Acta Cardiol. Published online May 10, 2021. doi:10.1080/00015385.2021.1901024

Style note

  • If the article is published online ahead of print, replace the volume, issue number and page numbers with Published online and the date of publication in the format: Month Day, Year

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of article: subtitle. Abbreviated Journal Title in Italics. Year;Volume(Issue)(suppl Supplement Number):Page range. doi:DOI or URL

Reference example

Bochenek SH, Fugit AM, Cook AM, Smith KM. Pharmacy residents’ perceptions of preceptors as role models. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73(11)(suppl 3):S94-S99. doi:10.2146/ajhp150661

Style notes

  • Include suppl and the supplement number or letter in brackets directly following the volume or issue
  • Write the page numbers as they appear on the article, e.g. S94-S99

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of article: subtitle. Abbreviated Journal Title in Italics. Year;Volume(Issue):Page range. doi:DOI or URL

Reference example

Eades SJ, Banks E. 50 years since citizenship: successes and challenges in Indigenous health. Public Health Res Pract. 2017;27(4):e2741730. doi:10.17061/phrp2741730

Style note

  • Some online-only journals use article numbers (also known as eLocators) instead of a page range

Reference components

Reporter Surname Reporter Initials. Title of article. Full Title of Newspaper in Italics. Month Day, Year of article;Section:page. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference examples

Titelius R. War not wasted on health. The West Australian. March 31, 2019;Confidential:33.

Careful, medicines can also be poisons. The Australian. August 25, 2020;Commentary:10. Accessed November 6, 2020. https://www-proquest-com/docview/2436658973?accountid=10382

Vaccine is ready to roll. Koori Mail. March 24, 2021:9. Accessed July 12, 2021. https://aiatsis.gov.au/collection/featured-collections/koori-mail

Style notes

  • If referencing a print newspaper omit the Access date and URL
  • If there is no author, omit the author from the reference and list the title of the article first

Books

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of Book in Italics. # ed. Publisher; Publication Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. doi:DOI or URL

Reference examples

Khan MG. Cardiac Drug Therapy. 8th ed. Humana Press; 2015. Accessed October 10, 2018. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-962-4

Hansen V, Horsfall J. Noongar Bush Tucker: Bush Food Plants and Fungi of the South-West of Western Australia. UWA Publishing; 2019.

Berman A, Snyder SJ, Levett-Jones T, et al. Kozier and Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process and Practice. 4th Aust. ed. Pearson Australia; 2018. Accessed December 6, 2019. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/curtin/detail.action?docID=5220629

Style notes

  • A DOI is preferable to a URL if one is available
  • If referencing a print book, omit access date and URL/DOI
  • For editions other than the first, enter the edition after the title e.g. 8th ed.

Reference components

Chapter Author Surname Author Initials. Title of chapter. In: Editor Surname Editor Initials, ed. Title of Book in Italics. # ed. Publisher; Publication Year:Chapter page range. Accessed Month Day, Year. doi:DOI or URL

Reference examples

Riddle M, Taylor WD. Structural changes in the aging brain. In: Etkin A, Hantke N, O’Hara R, eds. Handbook of Mental Health and Aging. 3rd ed. Elsevier; 2020:59-70. Accessed November 6, 2020. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/curtin/detail.action?docID=6183701

Cain JJ, Clauson KA, Fox BI. Digital communication in healthcare. In: Beardsley R, Skrabal MZ, Kimberlin CL, eds. Communication Skills in Pharmacy Practice: A Practical Guide for Students and Practitioners. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2020:189-209.

Style notes

  • A DOI is preferable to a URL if one is available
  • If referencing a print book, omit access date and URL/DOI
  • For editions other than the first, enter the edition after the title e.g. 8th ed.

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of Thesis in Italics. Dissertation or Master’s thesis. University; Publication Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference examples

Czarniak P. Issues With the Use of Medicines in Paediatrics: Off-label and Unlicensed Use, and Formulation Uncertainty. Dissertation. Curtin University; 2014. Accessed December 6, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11937/554

Smith C. The Development and Validation of the Breast Lymphoedema Severity Symptom (BLYSS) Questionnaire. Master’s thesis. Curtin University; 2013. Accessed January 16, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11937/1022

Style note

  • If referencing a print thesis, omit the access date and URL/DOI

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of paper. Paper presented at: Name of Conference; Month Day(s), Year of conference; Place of conference. Accessed Month Day, Year. doi:DOI or URL

Reference example

Jackson P, Sixsmith J, Mihailidis A, Sixsmith A. Perspectives on collaboration in technology innovation for ageing. Paper presented at: 13th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics; June 10-12, 2015; Geneva, Switzerland. Accessed September 24, 2020. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-19312-0_3

Style note

  • If citing a poster, substitute Poster presented at:

Health resources

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev in Italics. Year;(Issue):Article No. doi:DOI

Reference example

Dushianthan A, Cusack R, Burgess VA, Grocott MPW, Calder PC. Immunonutrition for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;(1):CD012041. doi:10.1002/14651858

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials or Organisation Name. Title of entry. Name of the Source. Month Day, Year published. Updated Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference examples

Amoxicillin. Australian Medicines Handbook. Updated July, 2020. Accessed November 12, 2020. https://amhonline-amh-net-au.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/chapters/anti-infectives/antibacterials/penicillins/amoxicillin

Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Malaria (anitmalarials). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Updated April 19, 2017. Accessed November 12, 2020. https://www.medicinescomplete.com/#/content/martindale/1370-a5-1-b?hspl=malaria

MIMS Australia. Alphamox. MIMS Online. Updated November, 2020. Accessed November 12, 2020. https://www-mimsonline-com-au.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/

Feldweg AM, Kelso JM, TePas E. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis: management and prognosis. UpToDate. Updated January 15, 2020. Accessed November 12, 2020. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-management-and-prognosis

Websites and social media

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials or Organisation Name. Title of the webpage. Name of the website. Month Day, Year published. Updated Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference examples

Environmental health. Australian IndigenousHealthInfoNET. Accessed January 21, 2021. https://healthinfonet.ecu.au/learn/determinants-of-health/environmental-health/

Maddison M, Cassidy T. Type 1 diabetes causes widely misunderstood, sufferers say, with sugar shaming a ‘trigger’. ABC News. July 17, 2020. Updated October 28, 2020. Accessed January 21, 2021. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-07-17/fighting-misconceptions-about-type-1-diabetes/12460244

Style notes

  • Omit author if not provided on the webpage
  • If there is no date of publication or last update/revision date, omit these from the reference
  • If referring to a book, journal article or report on a website, cite using these formats not as a web page

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of Video in Italics. Source. Month Day, Year published. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference examples

Raskopoulos J. Living with High Functioning Anxiety. TEDxSydney. June 16, 2017. Accessed July 12, 2021. https://tedxsydney.com/talk/living-with-high-functioning-anxiety-jordan-raskopoulos/

McCormack J. Viva La Evidence. YouTube. August 22, 2013. Accessed September 24, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUW0Q8tXVUc

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials. Title of post. Name of Blog in Italics blog. Month Day, Year of post. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference example

Strakosch C. Regional connectivity: more than an affordable internet connection. Good Things Foundation Australia blog. February 25, 2020. Accessed September 24, 2020. https://www.goodthingsfoundation.org.au/news-and-blogs/blog/regional-connectivity-more-affordable-internet-connection

Reference components

Title of Facebook page. Text of the post. Month Day, Year of post. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference example

World Health Organization Facebook page. Today is World Alzheimer’s Day. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. There are nearly 10 million new cases of dementia every year - that’s one case every 3 seconds. September 20, 2020. Accessed September 24, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/WHO

Reference components

Twitter username. Text of the post. Month Day, Year of post. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference example

@WHO. #Rabies immunization should also be considered for children living in, or visiting, remote, high-risk areas. As they play with animals, they may receive more severe bites, or may not report bites. September 23, 2020. Accessed September 24, 2020. https://twitter.com/WHO/status/1308465339467005952

Reference components

Host. Name of Podcast in Italics. Title of episode. Month Day, Year of episode. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference example

Malcolm L. All in the Mind. Tripping for depression. September 16, 2018. Accessed November 11, 2020. http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/tripping-for-depression/10223006

Reports and legislation

Reference components

Author Surname Author Initials or Organisation Name. Title of Report in Italics. Publisher Name; Year. Report Number. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference examples

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Non-Medical Use of Pharmaceuticals: Trends, Harms and Treatment, 2006-07 to 2015-16. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2017. HSE 195. Accessed September 25, 2020. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/illicit-use-of-drugs/non-medical-use-pharmaceuticals/contents/table-of-contents

World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2013: Research for Universal Health Coverage. World Health Organization; 2013. Accessed September 25, 2020. https://www.who.int/whr/2013/report/en/

Australian Bureau of Statistics. Apparent Consumption of Alcohol, Australia, 2017-18. Australian Bureau of Statistics; 2019. Accessed December 11, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/health/health-conditions-and-risks/apparent-consumption-alcohol-australia/latest-release

Tessema ME. Wildlife Crime Assessment in Ethiopia. IUCN National Committee of The Netherlands; 2017. Accessed December 11, 2020. https://www.iucn.nl/files/publicaties/wlc_doc-ethiopie_small.pdf

Style notes

  • If there is no report number, omit this from the reference
  • If referencing a print report, omit the accessed date and the URL/DOI
  • If the publisher name includes the word Department abbreviate to Dept

Reference components

Title of Act Year (Jurisdiction). Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Reference example

Mental Health Act 2014 (WA). Accessed June 23, 2020. https://www.legislation.wa.gov.au/legislation/statutes

Reference components

Case Name (Year) volume number Law Report Series starting page.

Reference example

The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 5.