APA 7 Referencing

Cochrane systematic review

Author Surname, Initial(s). (year). Title of review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/DOI


Reference list example

Dushianthan, A., Cusack, R., Burgess, V. A., Grocott, M. P. W., & Calder, P. C. (2019). Immunonutrition for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012041.pub2

(Dushianthan et al., 2019).

OR

Dushianthan et al. (2019) suggest…


If quoting

“At present, no effective pharmacotherapies are known to moderate the disease process of ARDS” (Dushianthan et al., 2019, p. 5).

OR

Dushianthan et al. (2019) found that “at present, no effective pharmacotherapies are known to moderate the disease process of ARDS” (p. 5).

UpToDate

Author Surname, Initial(s). (year). Title of article or entry. UpToDate. Retrieved Month day, year, from URL


Reference list example

Williams, J., & Nieuwsma, J. (2022). Screening for depression in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved February 9, 2022, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/screening-for-depression-in-adults

(Williams & Nieuwsma, 2022).

OR

Williams and Nieuwsma (2022)…


If quoting

“In the absence of screening, it is estimated that only 50 percent of patients with major depression are identified” (Williams & Nieuwsma, 2022, para. 2).

OR

Williams and Nieuwsma (2022) highlight that “in the absence of screening, it is estimated that only 50 percent of patients with major depression are identified” (para. 2).

  • Provide a retrieval date as the content will change over time
  • Use the year listed after “this topic last updated” from the UpToDate database

AMH, MIMs and Martindale

Title of article or entry. (year). Title of Source in Italics. Retrieved Month day, year, from URL


Reference list examples

Atorvastatin. (2019). Australian Medicines Handbook. Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://amhonline-amh-net-au.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/chapters/cardiovascular-drugs/drugs-dyslipidaemia/statins/atorvastatin

Panamax. (2017). MIMS Online. Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://www.mimsonline.com.au

Rheumatoid arthritis. (2019). Martindale. Retrieved November 11, 2019, from https://www.medicinescomplete.com/#/content/martindale/17192-a4-3-w

(“Atorvastatin,” 2019).

OR

(“Rheumatoid Arthritis,” 2019).


If quoting

“Chronic liver disease increases concentration of atorvastatin” (“Atorvastatin,” 2019, Precautions section).

OR

According to the article “Atorvastatin” (2019), “chronic liver disease increases concentration of atorvastatin” (Precautions section).

Note. When quoting, if there is no page number, use a paragraph number instead. Include a section heading to enhance retrievability.

  • The title moves to the author position when there is no author
  • Provide a retrieval date as the content will change over time
  • When referencing MIMs, provide the URL for the homepage of the database

DSM-5 and ICD

Author. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In Title of diagnostic manual in italics (# ed.). Publisher Name. https://doi.org/DOI or URL


Reference list examples

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Feeding and eating disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm10

World Health Organization. (2019). Sleep-related movement disorders. In International classification of diseases and mental health problems (11th ed.). http://id.who.int/icd/entity/1630407678

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

OR

The World Health Organization (2019) classify…


If quoting

“The essential feature of pica is the eating of one or more nonnutritive, nonfood substances on a persistent basis” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, Pica section, para. 1).

OR

The American Psychiatric Association (2013) state that “the essential feature of pica is the eating of one or more nonnutritive, nonfood substances on a persistent basis” (Pica section, para. 1).

Note. When quoting, if there is no page number, use a paragraph number instead. Include a section heading to enhance retrievability.


Optional organisation name abbreviation

First citation:

…(American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013).

OR

The American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013)…

Subsequent citations:

(APA, 2013).

OR

APA (2013) has defined…

  • When the author and the publisher are the same, omit the Publisher Name
  • When referring to the complete manual, use the Book reference type

Clinical practice guidelines

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Organisation Name. (year). Title of clinical guideline in italics (Guideline no.). Source Name. URL


Reference list examples

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2020). Joint replacement (primary): Hip, knee and shoulder (NICE Guideline NG157). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/NG157

Perth Children’s Hospital. (2020). Bronchiolitis. Government of Western Australia, Child and Adolescent Health Service. https://pch.health.wa.gov.au/en/For-health-professionals/Emergency-Department-Guidelines/Bronchiolitis

(Perth Children’s Hospital, 2020).

OR

The guideline provided by the Perth Children’s Hospital (2020) outlines…


If quoting

“Bronchiolitis is a viral condition beginning with an acute upper respiratory infection followed by onset of respiratory distress and fever” (Perth Children’s Hospital, 2020, Background section).

OR

Perth Children’s Hospital (2020) defines bronchiolitis as “a viral condition beginning with an acute upper respiratory infection followed by onset of respiratory distress and fever” (Background section).


Optional organisation name abbreviation

First citation:

…(Perth Children’s Hospital [PCH], 2020).

OR

The Perth Children’s Hospital (PCH, 2020)…

Subsequent citations:

(PCH, 2020).

OR

PCH (2020) has defined…

  • When the author and the source are the same, omit the Source Name
  • If there is no guideline number this can be omitted from the reference