Author variations

Author variations apply to all secondary source reference types (books, journal articles, reports etc.).
List the author’s first name followed by their family name e.g. John Smith. If the first name is not given on the publication, then provide the author’s initial(s) with no spaces in between e.g. JA Smith.
See rule 4.1 for more details such as how to include honorific/peerage titles.

Scott Grattan, ‘Revisiting Restraints on Alienation: Public and Private Dimensions’ (2015) 41(3) Monash University Law Review 67, 84.

Paul Latimer, Australian Business Law (Oxford University Press, 35th ed, 2016) 36.

  • List both in the reference joined by ‘and’

Ronald Dworkin and Ross Redford, Law’s Empire (Harvard University Press, 1968) 18.

Jacob Greber and Andrew Tillett, ‘Donald Trump Nominates Australian Ambassador’, Financial Review (online at 6 November 2018) <https://www.afr.com/news/politics/donald-trump-nominates-australian-ambassador-20181106-h17kx5>.

  • List all authors in the reference joining the last two authors with ‘and’

Sarah Joseph, Jenny Schultz and Melissa Castan, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2004).

Bronwyn Naylor, Julie Debeljak and Anita Mackay, ‘Introduction: Implementing Human Rights in Closed Environments’ (2015) 31(1) Law in Context 1, 6.

  • List only the first author followed by ‘et al’ (meaning and others)

Paul Rishworth et al, The New Zealand Bill of Rights (Oxford University Press, 2003).

Martin Dockray et al, ‘Why Do We Need Adverse Possession?’ [1985] (Spring) Conveyancer and Property Lawyer 272, 275.

  • Terms such as ‘Pty’, ‘Ltd’, ‘Co’, ‘Inc’ should be omitted from company names.
  • ‘The’ should be omitted if it appears at the beginning of the company name.
  • When a government department is the author and there are multiple subdivisions, use the most specific subdivision (unless doing so will create ambiguity). For example: Government of Western Australia, Department of Health, Royal Perth Hospital you would list Royal Perth Hospital as the author.
  • If the jurisdiction is not apparent, the abbreviated jurisdiction can be included in brackets after the department’s name, e.g. Department of Health (WA).

Qantas Airways, Qantas Annual Report 2017: Positioning for Sustainability and Growth (Report, 2017) 12.

Department of Education (Cth), Department of Education 2018-19 Annual Report: Opportunity Through Learning (Report, 2019) 56.

Journal and news articles

Footnote components:

Author First Name or Initial(s) Author Surname, ‘Title of Article’ (Year) Volume number(Issue number) Full Journal Title in Italics First Page of Article, Pinpoint <URL>.


Footnote examples:

Scott Grattan, ‘Revisiting Restraints on Alienation: Public and Private Dimensions’ (2015) 41(3) Monash University Law Review 67, 84 <https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/monash41&i=75>.

Bronwyn Naylor, Julie Debeljak and Anita Mackay, ‘Introduction: Implementing Human Rights in Closed Environments’ (2015) 31(1) Law in Context 1, 6 <https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/lwincntx31&i=9>.

Martin Dockray et al, ‘Why Do We Need Adverse Possession?’ [1985] (Spring) Conveyancer and Property Lawyer 272, 275.

Anusha Pirani, ‘Cryptocurrency: A Magical Bubble or the Future of Currency’ (2018) 5(8) Court Uncourt 29: 29-31, 30 <https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/counco5&i=325>.

Andrew Sherrill et al, ‘Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment’ (2015) 10(10) PLOS One e0141181: 1-19, 15 <https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141181>.


Extra tips:

  • If the name of a case or statute is included as part of the artice title, you must italicise the case or statute name. See rule 4.2 for more detail
  • Year, volume number, issue number:

  • If the journal is organised by year put the year of publication in square brackets and include the issue number in round brackets preceded by a space [2019] (1). There will be no volume number
  • If the journal is organised by volume number, put the year of publication in round brackets and include the volume and issue number in round brackets (2018) 40(1)
  • If the issue identifier is not a number this should appear preceded by a space and enclosed in round brackets eg: [2019] (Summer) or (2019) 31 (Winter). For newsletters or magazines (where the issue is defined by a month or season rather than a volume, issue or year) see rule 7.11.3

  • Omit ‘The’ if it occurs at the beginning of the title. Subtitles should be omitted where this does not cause ambiguity (rule 5.5)
  • For the pinpoint use the exact page referred to, preceded by a comma and a space. When the pinpoint reference is also the first page of an article, the page number should be repeated.
  • If the article appears as a PDF, include the page range of the article after the starting page number and before the pinpoint (see fourth example)
  • If an article has an article number or some other identifier, use this in place of the starting page number (see fifth example)
  • A <URL> may be included to aid in retrieval. It should appear at the end of the citation after the pinpoint but before a short title.

Footnote components:

Author First Name or Initial(s) Author Surname, ‘Title of Article’ (Year) Volume number(Issue number) Full Journal Title in Italics (advance).


Footnote examples:

Shiri Krebs, Ingrid Nielsen and Russell Smyth, ‘What Determines the Institutional Legitimacy of the High Court of Australia?’ (2019) 43(2) Melbourne University Law Review (advance).

Virginia Mantouvalou, ‘Welfare-to-Work, Structural Injustice and Human Rights’ (2020) Modern Law Review (advance).

Footnote components:

Reporter First Name or Initial(s) Reporter Surname, ‘Title of Article’, Italicised Newspaper Title (Place of Publication, Full Date) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Tomio Geron, ‘As Market Softens, Startups Work Harder to Compete for Talent’, Wall Street Journal (New York, 20 June 2016), 12.

Jacob Greber and Andrew Tillett, ‘Donald Trump Nominates Australian Ambassador’, Financial Review (online, 6 November 2018) <https://www.afr.com/news/politics/donald-trump-nominates-australian-ambassador-20181106-h17kx5>.


Extra tips:

  • Include ‘The’ at the beginning of the newspaper title if it appears in the masthead e.g. The West Australian
  • If the article appears in a separately paginated section and the section has its own title, include the section title before the name of the newspaper e.g. Saturday Extra, The Age
  • The place of publication is the place of the newspaper’s headquarters and should be given as a city. Include a state or country if this is ambiguous (e.g. London, Ontario)
  • A pinpoint should only be included where the article has pages or paragraphs
  • If accessing online, omit the place of publication and precede the date with the word ‘online’ (see second example). Add the <URL> following the full date (or any pinpoint references).

Books

Footnote components:

Author First Name or Initial(s) Author Surname, Title of Book in Italics (Publisher, edition ed, Year) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Paul Latimer, Australian Business Law (Oxford University Press, 35th ed, 2016) 36.

Sarah Joseph, Jenny Schultz and Melissa Castan, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2004).

Paul Rishworth et al, The New Zealand Bill of Rights (Oxford University Press, 2003).

Justin Healey (ed), Drug Law Reform Debate (Spinney Press, 2014) 123.


Extra tips:

  • Omit ‘The’ if it appears at the start of a publisher’s name and abbreviations such as ‘Ltd’ or ‘Co’
  • Use ‘rev ed’ for a revised edition
  • If the author’s name is the same as the publisher’s name then omit this part. See rule 6.3.1 for more detail
  • For the pinpoint use the exact page referred to. If you wish to cite the exact paragraph you can put in square brackets or if you wish to cite the exact chapter you can abbreviate as ‘ch’
  • If it is an edited book, include (ed) or (eds) after the name(s).

Footnote components:

Chapter Author First Name or Initial(s) Chapter Author Surname, ‘Chapter Title’ in Editor First Name or Initial(s) Editor Surname, Title of Book in Italics (Publisher, edition ed, Year) Starting page of chapter, Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Frederick Hendrik Kistenkas, ‘Sustainable Development: New Thoughts’ in Volker Mauerhofer (ed), Legal Apsects of Sustainable Development (Springer International Publishing, 2016) 535, 540.

Paul James Cardwell and Tamara Hervey, ‘Bringing the Technical into the Socio-Legal: The Metaphors of Law and Legal Scholarship of a Twenty-First Century European Union’ in David Cowan and Daniel Wincott (eds), Exploring the ‘Legal’ in Socio-Legal Studies (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016) 157.

Footnote components:

Dictionary Title in Italics (Edition Number ed, Publication Year) ‘Title of Entry’ (def Definition Number).


Footnote examples:

Print dictionary

Macquarie Dictionary (5th ed, 2009) ‘demise’ (def 4).

Online dictionary

Encyclopaedic Australian Legal Dictionary (online at 20 February 2018) ‘default judgment’ (def 1).


Extra tip:

For an online dictionary replace the publication details with (online at Date of Retrieval)

Footnote components:

Publisher, Title of Encyclopedia in Italics, vol Volume Number (at Full date) Title Number Name of Title, ‘Chapter Number Name of Chapter’ [Paragraph].


Footnote examples:

Print encyclopedia

LexisNexis, Halsbury’s Laws of Australia, vol 15 (at 25 May 2009) 235 Insurance, ‘2 General Principles’ [235-270].

Online encyclopedia

WestLaw AU, The Laws of Australia (online at 15 February 2018) 2 Administrative Law, ‘2.3 Access to Information’ [2.3.10].


Extra tip:

For an online encyclopedia include (online at Date of Retrieval) after the title and omit the Volume Number and (at Full Date).

Footnote components:

Publisher, Title in Italics, vol Volume Number (at most recent service number for pinpoint or Date of last update) [Pinpoint].


Footnote examples:

Print looseleaf

Niel J Williams, LexisNexis Butterworths, Civil Procedure: Victoria, vol 1 (at service 231) [21.01.1].

Online looseleaf

CCH Australia, Australian Intellectual Property Commentary (online at 20 February 2018) ¶7-000.


Extra tips:

  • For online looseleaf include (online Date of Retrieval) after the title and omit the Volume Number and (at most recent service number for pinpoint or Date of last update)
  • Where an author of a looseleaf service is clearly identified, the author’s name should be included before the publisher, followed by a comma
  • Pinpoints should be to paragraphs and therefore appear in square brackets [ ], unless the ¶ symbol is used, in which case square brackets are omitted

Footnote components:

Author First Name or Initial(s) Author Surname, ‘Title’ (Type of Thesis, Institution, Year) Pinpoint.


Footnote example:

Michelle Evans, ‘The Use of the Principle of Subsidiarity in the Reformation of Australia’s Federal System of Government’ (PhD Thesis, Curtin University, 2012) 17.


Extra tip:

  • A <URL> may be included at the end of the citation, where its inclusion will help the reader locate the item.

Footnote components:

Author First Name or Initial(s) Author Surname, ‘Title’ (Conference Paper, Name of Conference, Full Date) Pinpoint.


Footnote example:

Jessica Almqvist, ‘Global Judicial Governance of Cultural Diversity: The Role of the European Judge’ (Conference Paper, European Society of International Law Annual Conference, 31 December 2015).


Extra tips:

  • Ordinal numbers (e.g. 5th) of conferences should not be included.
  • A <URL> may be included at the end of the citation, where its inclusion will help the reader locate the item
  • If a conference paper has been published in a journal or a book, it should be cited following the guidelines for a book or journal article.

Reports

Footnote components:

Author, Title of Report in Italics (Document Type/Series No Document Number, Full Date) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Community Law Australia, Unaffordable and Out of Reach: The Problem of Access to the Australian Legal System (Report, July 2012).

Qantas Airways, Qantas Annual Report 2017: Positioning for Sustainability and Growth (Report, 2017) 12.


Extra tips:

  • If a report does not prominently indicate an author then do not include an author
  • If the report is not part of a numbered series, the document number should be omitted
  • When there is no full date on the source, include as much information as you can e.g. September 2018 or 2018
  • A <URL> may be included where this would aid its retrieval

Footnote components:

Author, Title of Report in Italics (Document Type/Series No Document Number, Full Date) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Royal Commission into Trade Union Governance and Corruption (Final Report, December 2015) vol 2.

Australian Law Reform Commission, Elder Abuse (Discussion Paper No 83, December 2016).

Victorian Law Reform Commission, Civil Justice Review (Report No 14, March 2008) 4.


Extra tips:

  • If a report does not prominently indicate an author then do not include an author
  • If the report is not part of a numbered series, the document number should be omitted
  • When there is no full date on the source, include as much information as you can e.g. September 2018 or 2018
  • A <URL> may be included where this would aid its retrieval
  • For submissions to royal commissions see rule 7.5.2
  • For Law Reform Commission publications the type of publication (Report, Discussion Paper, Issues Paper, Consultation Paper, Interim Report) should be included as the document type

Footnote components:

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Title of Report in Italics (Catalogue Number, Full Date) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia, 2019 (Catalogue No 4517.0, 5 December 2019).


Extra tips:

  • When there is no full date on the source, include as much information as you can e.g. September 2018 or 2018
  • A URL may be included where this would aid its retrieval

Footnote components:

Committee, Legislature, Title in Italics (Document Type/Series No Document Number, Full Date) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Environment and Natural Resources Committee, Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into the Environment Effects Statement Process in Victoria (Parliamentary Paper No 59, September 2011).

Senate Legal Constitutional References Committee, Parliament of Australia, Inquiry into Alternative Dispute Resolution and Restorative Justice (Final Report, May 2009) 26.

Department of Parliamentary Services (Cth), Bills Digest (Digest No 75 of 2008-09, 27 January 2009) 8.

Websites & social media

Footnote components:

Author, ‘Document Title’, Webpage Title in Italics (Document Type, Full Date) Pinpoint <URL>.


Footnote examples:

Peter Ryan, ‘Global Bank HSBC Owns Up to Potential Anti-Money Laundering Law Breaches, ABCNews (Web Page, 8 April 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-08/banking-giant-hsbc-flags-potential-money-laundering-breaches/12132454>.

Jeremy Gans, ‘News: Five New Special Leave Grants Bring the Yearly Total to 35’, Opinions on High (Blog Post, 15 December 2018) <http://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/opinionsonhigh/2018/12/15/news-five-special-leave-grants-bring-the-yearly-total-to-35>.


Extra tips:

  • Only include the author if they are listed on the webpage. If the author and the webpage title are the same, the author should be omitted
  • Include the type of document e.g. Blog Post, Forum Post etc. Where the document type is not clear Web Page should be used
  • Cite the full update date of the webpage. If not available cite the date the document was created. If there is no full date available, include as much of the date as appears. If there is no date listed at all, omit this part. You are not required to cite the date you accessed the material
  • Pinpoint: If the material is a PDF document then you can include the page number. If the material is a webpage in HTML format then you can include the paragraph number or section number in square brackets
  • If the URL is very lengthy and the document can be easily located from the homepage, you may enter this instead.

Footnote components:

Username, ‘Title’ (Social Media Platform, Full Date, Time) <URL>.


Footnote examples:

@AustLii, (Twitter, 10 December 2018, 8.26pm) <https://twitter.com/austlii/status/1072333780755591169>.

VictoriaLegalAid, ‘Australia’s Legal System - What’s the Law? Australian Law for New Arrivals’ (YouTube, 24 October 2011) 00:00:10-00:01:50 <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RO5bBEulP68>.


Extra tips:

  • The username should appear as it does on the social media platform (capitalisation should not be altered)
  • For Twitter accounts @ should be included in the username
  • If the name of the author is not clear from the username, you may include the author’s name in brackets after the username, preceded by a space
  • If the post has no title, you may omit this part
  • When citing YouTube videos, any pinpoint references should be to a point in time or timespan in the recording in the format: Hours: Minutes: Seconds

Other sources

Footnote components:

Film Title in Italics (Version details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Year) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Legally Blonde (Metro Goldwyn Mayer, 2001) 1:12:00.

To Kill a Mockingbird (Brentwood Productions, 1962) 0:30:05.


Extra tips:

  • A brief version of the studio or production company’s name should be included. Exclude ‘the’ if it appears at the start of the name, as well as information relating to corporate status e.g. Pty and geographic location). Where there are multiple studios or companies, only the first listed should be included
  • Version details should be included when the version being cited is not the standard (e.g. Director’s Cut, Extended Version)
  • Where a pinpoint is given, it should follow the format - Hours:Minutes:Seconds.

Footnote components:

‘Episode Title’, Series Title in Italics (Studio/Production Company/Producer, Year) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

‘Episode Three’, When They See Us (Netflix, 2019).

‘Accounts Payable’, Suits (Open 4 Business Productions, 2016) 0:29:03.


Extra tips:

  • A brief version of the studio or production company’s name should be included. Exclude ‘the’ if it appears at the start of the name, as well as information relating to corporate status e.g. Pty and geographic location). Where there are multiple studios or companies, only the first listed should be included
  • If the episode has no title and is numbered consecutively, include Episode Number in place of the title (see first example). If numbered by season, include Season Number before the Episode Number e.g. ‘Season 9, Episode 7’
  • Where a pinpoint is given, it should follow the format - Hours:Minutes:Seconds.

Footnote components:

‘Episode Title’, Series Title in Italics (Version details, Studio/Production Company/Producer, Full Date of Broadcast) Pinpoint.


Footnote example:

‘Family Violence Killing Found to be a Workplace Death’, The Law Report (ABC National Radio, 21 July 2020) <https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/family-violence-killing-found-to-be-aworkplace-death/12448338>.


Extra tips:

  • A brief version of the studio or production company’s name should be included. Exclude ‘the’ if it appears at the start of the name, as well as information relating to corporate status e.g. Pty and geographic location). Where there are multiple studios or companies, only the first listed should be included
  • For radio segments, the Studio will usually be the radio station where the segment aired
  • For podcasts, use the title that appears on the podcast listening platform
  • Where a pinpoint is given, it should follow the format - Hours:Minutes:Seconds.

Footnote components:

Type of Correspondence from Author to Recipient, Full Date, Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Email from Vanessa Li to Samantha Jones, 4 November 2015.

Letter from Sir Peter Cosgrove to Malcolm Turnbull, 3 July 2016 <http://gg.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/gg/2016/Election%20Letters%20PM%20GG.pdf>, archived at <https://perm.cc/59PC-V4YW>.


Extra tips:

  • Use for letters, faxes, emails or email attachments
  • The position of the correspondents may be included after their names
  • If the correspondence is contained in an archive, the details of the archive should be included in brackets after the date

Footnote components:

Author, ‘Title’ (Speech, Institution/Forum, Full Date) Pinpoint.


Footnote examples:

Chief Justice Robert French, ‘Legal Change - the Role of Advocates’ (JD Lecture Series, Melbourne Law School, 22 June 2016).

Justice Dyson Heydon, ‘Threats to Judicial Independence: The Enemy Within’ (Speech, Inner Temple, 23 January 2012).


Extra tips:

  • If the speech is a named lecture, the lecture name should be included in the place of ‘Speech’. If the name starts with ‘The’ do not include this
  • If the speech is part of a lecture series, do not include its ordinal number
  • If no specific forum is indicated, the city or town in which the speech was delivered should be included
  • A URL may be included
  • If a speech has been published in a journal or book it should be cited as this

Footnote components:

Interview with Name of Interviewee (Name of Interviewer, Forum or Form of Interview, Full Date).


Footnote examples:

Conversation with Chief Justice John G Roberts Jr, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (Carolyn Evans, Melbourne Law School, The University of Melbourne, 20 July 2017).


Extra tips:

  • ‘Interview’ may be replaced with the appropriate format of the source being cited e.g. ‘Conversation’
  • The position of the interviewee may be included after their name, preceded by a comma
  • A URL may be included
  • If an interview has been published in a journal or book, it should be cited as this. It is has been televised it should be cited as an audiovisual recording